Monday, December 29, 2014

Yaaa-‘ayyuhan-naasut-taquu Rabbakumullazii khalaqakum-min-Nafsinw-waahida-tinw-wa khalaqa minhaa zaw-jahaa wa bassa minhumaa ri-jaalan-kasiiranw-wa nisaaa-‘aa

Lessons 470 to 481
Summary Of Surah ‘An-Nisaaa’
Introductory Note On 4th Chapter Of Qur’an
‘The Women’ (‘An-Nisaaa’ – 4th Surah) – Summary
Substance From The Chapter ‘An-Nisaaa’
A Look on Surah ‘An-Nisaaa’ (The Women)

This Chapter of Holy Qur’an named ‘An-Nisaaa’ (The Women) was revealed at Al-Madinah. There are 176 verses and 24 Sections in this Surah. Mutual relationship between the Man and the Woman has been described particularly in this Surah that which rights and duties they would have to perform for one another, how the relatives must be behaved, how the social evils can be removed, which method would be better to live all together and what are the benefits of living as a unit (one community) with each other?

Being a mankind, man and woman, both are equal because soul of both of them is the same. Care especially the orphans. Do not marry the fatherless girls for your own advantage losing them. You can marry two, three, or four common women at a time on the condition that you do justice between them and you should not seize the right of any woman. When you will be able to understand the rights of women correctly, then you will become justice and wise in getting the orphans married yourselves.

After that, law about dividing the inheritance has been mentioned in detail. Then punishment to the men and women upon their unacceptable actions has been prescribed. Time and method of penitence has been revealed. Then there is mention about those women with whom the marriage is unlawful. During the reign of last Messenger (grace, glory, blessings and peace of Allah Almighty be upon him), there was a class of slaves and bondwomen, the method, how to treat them, has been stated.

Then it is commanded, “Do not take forcible possession of others’ property or wealth. However, willingly business is lawful through trade. Do not kill one another. The people are very different from each other in their personal strength and knowledge. Friendly relationship can be in such a manner that everybody would understand the limit of his capabilities and do his job remaining in it. There is much open difference between male and female. Therefore, they should never compete with each other. The person, who will work remaining in personal limits, shall get its fruit and will succeed. The relations between husband and wife cannot be at too much variance after deeming to this extent. If either behavior of the husband is quite correct but the wife begins to molest or opposite to it then it becomes very necessary somehow to correct the violent. 

Following two important laws have been described in this chapter. Mankind’s betterment, goodness and welfare depends upon them: 

·       Any person, who has capability of any work, that is to say he/she can perform any particular work in a very good manner, he/she should be appointed for that work. Likewise, everything should be given to the rightful. It should not be so, that the deserving person remains deprived of any particular thing and the unworthy person takes its possession. It is the key to soundness of the society.
·       Obey the orders of Allah Almighty and His Messenger (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon him) and the person who is much at home in any work, follow him/her in that work and act upon his/her guidance. Find settlement/decision in the Commands/Sayings (Holy Qur’an and Hadith) of Allah Almighty and His Messenger (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon him), in case of difference of the opinions. These Commands/Sayings (Laws) are soul of the management of the government.  

Afterwards way of deeds regarding the Hypocrites has been discussed that they do not agree to the decisions of the Messenger of Allah Almighty (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon him) and place more confidence in other people.

Then people are prevailed to be prepared for the crusade of religion because it is necessary to save the weak Muslims from the tyranny of cruel disbelievers. The behavior of Hypocrites has also been reproached in it. These people see nothing but their own benevolence/advantage. To kill any Muslim intentionally is a very severe crime and its punishment is wrath of Allah Almighty and Fire of Hell. If anybody kills a Believer by mistake, error or omission, then expiation should be paid for it.

The prayers during journey and in the condition of fear have been explained that if there is threat of enemy’s attack and the time of prayer has started then how it would be offered.

After that, belief in a plurality of Allah Almighty (polytheism) has been mentioned that it is an unpardonable crime. Remain with the group and use to discuss the matters regarding introduction of good deeds, methods of correction and mutual relationships during reciprocally meetings. Keep correct and good faith in Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him). At the end, remaining principles regarding inheritance have been described.    

Creation Of The Mankind
How Human Being Was Created? 
God Created Us From A Single Soul
Be Careful Of Your Duty To Your Lord   
Rights Of Allah And His Servants
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN, Chapter - 4)
Verse – 1 of 176, Section –24 (Part – 4)

O mankind! Be careful of your duty to your Lord Who created you from a single soul and from it created its mate and from them twain hath spread abroad a multitude of men and women. And be careful of your duty toward Allah in Whom ye claim (your rights) of one another, and toward the wombs (that bare you). Lo! Allah hath been a Watcher over you.      
Yaaa-‘ayyuhan-naasut-taquu  Rabbakumullazii  khalaqakum-min-Nafsinw-waahida-tinw-wa  khalaqa  minhaa zaw-jahaa  wa  bassa  minhumaa  ri-jaalan-kasiiranw-wa  nisaaa-‘aa. Wattaqullaa-hallazii  ta-saaa-‘aluuna  bihii  wal-‘arhaam.  ‘Innallaaha  kaana  ‘alay-kum  Raqiibaa.

This verse signifies toward the creation of the first humankind i.e. Adam (peace be upon him), then Eve (his wife - Hawwa) was created from his (peace be upon him) left rib as his mate and from them twain, Allah Almighty has spread abroad a multitude of men and women in the world. It means that the woman is weak a little than the man. Lord Almighty is the God Who nourishes and provides entire necessary things to the human beings. Therefore, it is compulsory for us to bear His orders and Pleasure in our minds in each matter and every time, and we should escape from His displeasure. Even in each mutual matter, every person points toward Allah Almighty for His sake, but there is a dire need to have fear of His displeasure in our hearts and we should not be disobedient of our Lord at any cost.

While all the humankind are children of one man and woman (Adam and Eve – the wife of Adam) (peace be upon them), then they have very deep mutual relationship with one another likewise brothers and sisters of each other. Therefore, everybody should try not to harm someone else. However, they should help and sympathize mutually. It is important to guide toward good deeds, to save from evils/sins, to help in difficulties, to look after with spirit and wealth at the time of necessity, to keep providing comfort and consolation among ourselves. Close relatives need more attention to be looked after. We should not forget it also that besides our relatives, we have human relation with the entire human beings of the earth. Whenever the time comes, good behavior is incumbent with everyone. ‘Arhaam has been derived from the word (plural of) raham which means mercy, kindness, loving and treating one’s relatives nicely.   

The children of Adam (peace be upon him) have been addressed in the verse that they should have fear of That Existence (Allah Almighty), Who created them. This order of God-fearing is for the entire humanity. Piety for the disbelievers is that they should embrace Islam, believe in Allah Almighty as only One God, Muhammad (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon him) as Allah’s last messenger out of other entire prophets/Messengers (peace be upon them), Qur’an as last Holy Book out of all Scriptures which has never been changed, nor it is possible to be changed by anyone in future.

Piousness for the Muslims is that they should remain steadfast in their belief and do good deeds.

Wealth Of Orphans
Fatherless Children’s Wealth 
Give The Orphans Their Wealth
Exchange Not The Good For The Bad   
Absorbing Others’ Wealth Into Own Is Great Sin
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN, Chapter - 4)
Verse – 2 of 176, Section –24 (Part – 4)

And give unto orphans their wealth. Exchange not the good for the bad (in your management thereof) nor absorb their wealth into your own wealth. Lo! that is a great sin.
Wa  ‘aatul-yataamaaa  ‘am-waalahum  wa  laa  tatabadda-lul-khabiisa  bit-tayyib.  Wa  laa  ta’-kuluuu  ‘am-waala-hum  ‘ilaaa  ‘amwaalikum.  ‘Innahuu  kaana  huuban- kabiiraa. 

Yataamaaa(orphans) those children, who do not have their parents, particularly father.

Khabiisan(the bad) that is to say; impure, unreal and unclean.

Huuban(punishment for a fault distressing), such sin and burden, the result of which is misfortune and disaster.

It is evident from the name of this chapter “Nisaaa’ ” that the matters regarding the women will be discussed especially along with their rights and duties in it. Therefore, in the primary verses, at first it has been cleared that the birth of man and woman takes place from the same one body. Consequently, sobriety and God-fearing should be considered actual standard of excellence, and treat all of them kindly and with kinship.

Now in the second verse, it is being commanded, “Do not seize the wealth of orphans.” Doing so is just like mixing the impure in to the pure. If any person uses the wealth of orphan unlawfully, as though he is making his lawful and pure earnings also as unlawful, impure and bad. As any person makes water-filled glass impure by putting a few drops of urine in to it likewise by taking over (snatching through any means) insignificant and a little wealth of the orphan, he makes unlawful entire earning of his life.

Purpose of revelation of this verse is told so, that there was excessive wealth of a person’s orphan nephew in his care. When his nephew became adult, he demanded his wealth, but his uncle denied to hand him over. At that occasion, this verse was revealed, listening to it the uncle returned his orphan nephew’s wealth and said, “We obey Allah Almighty and His Messenger (grace, glory, blessing and peace be upon him)”.  

It has also been described that it does not mean that snatching the wealth other than orphan is lawful and you would not be punished. No! Wealth of others is unlawful for you too, whether he/she is anyone. Saying this crime huuban- kabiiraa (a great sin), the importance of the reality of sin and crime has been cleared, so that nobody may remain in doubt.

At first treating the relatives kindly, with mercy and kinship was emphasized, then behavior with the orphans was explained and at the end, it has been advised to correct the affairs with the entire children of Adam (peace be upon him). It is the actual Spirit of Islam.   

Enumeration Of the Matrimonies
Number Of Marriages Which Are Allowed 
More Matrimony Are Allowed, If You Can Do Justice
Due To Fear Of Injustice, One Should Marry One   
Fear Dealing With The Orphans
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verse – 3 of 176, Section –1/24 (Part – 4)

And if ye fear that ye will not deal fairly by the orphans, marry of the women, who seem good to you, two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye cannot do justice (to so many) then one (only) or (the captives) that your right hands possess. Thus it is more likely that ye will not do injustice. 
Wa  ‘in  khiftum  ‘allaa  tuq-situu  fil-yataamaa  fan-kihuu  maa  taaba  lakum-minan-nisaaa-‘i  masnaa  wa  sulaasa  wa  rubaa’.  Fa-‘in  khiftum  ‘allaa  ta’-diluu  fawaa-hidatan  ‘aw  maa  malakat  ‘aymaanukum.  Zaalika  ‘adnaaa  ‘allaa  ta-‘uu-luu.

‘aymaanun  - (right hands), it is plural of yamiin which means ‘the right hand’. Whenever any person catches any thing, he catches it usually with his right hand. Therefore, to disclose complete grip of the hand (possession) upon anything, it is said in Arabic idioms, “His right hand is Master of that thing.” That is to say, “he has complete and strong hold on it, for example slave and maid etc.

In this part of the verse, special attention has been drawn towards the orphans because there is none ordinarily to care for them. They can be victim of tyranny by any cruel person easily. If you marry the orphan girls, that should not be for the purpose of desire, greed and to take possession of wealth, but that should be only for their interest and benefit. And if it is difficult to escape from these uncomely affairs, then let the orphan girls remain in their own circumstances and marry some other woman. And if you wish, you can marry who seem good to you, two or three or four. In this case, you have to be more careful to do justice between them. If you cannot do justice to so many wives then marry one only or the maid (captive) that your right hands possess, sustain upon her only. That is nearer to justice.

It is important to understand particularly two or three matters in connection with this verse:

1.  Firstly, if you fear that you will not deal fairly by the orphan girls then do not marry them. However, you can marry even four other women.

2.  Secondly, fundamental condition for marrying more than one is that you would have to establish justice between the wives (which is a very much difficult matter to do so as it has been described at another place also in this chapter).

3.  Thirdly, if you have fear that you would not be able to do justice and equality between the wives then you should be satisfied with the captive woman only.  

It means that the matrimony more than one is not open and common but that is bound with the condition of justice.

Right Of Money Incumbent On Husband
Free Gift Of Women’s Marriage Portions From Husband 
Pay The Incumbent Money To Married Women As A Right
Marriage Portions’ - Gift Of Women 
Women’s Remitted Part Of Free Gift Is Lawful  
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verse – 4 & 5 of 176, Section –1/24 (Part – 4)
4.  And give unto the women (whom ye marry) free gift of their marriage portions. But if they of their own accord remit unto you a part thereof, then ye are welcome to absorb it (in your wealth).
5.  And give not unto the foolish (what is in) your (keeping of their) wealth, which Allah hath given you to maintain; and feed and clothe them from it, and speak kindly unto them.
4.  Wa  ‘aatun-nisaaa-‘a  sadu-qaati-hinna  nihlah.  Fa-‘in-  tib-na  lakum  ‘an- shay-‘im-minhu  nafsan-fakuluuhu  haniii-‘am-mariii-‘aa.

5.  Wa  laa  tu’-tussufahaaa-‘a  ‘amwaala-kumullatii  ja-‘alal-laahu  lakum  qiyaaamanw-war-zuquuhum  fiihaa  waksuuhum  wa  quuluu  lahum  qawlam-ma’-ruufaa.

sadu-qaati-hinna{free gift of women’s marriage portions (who are married recently)}, sadu-qaat is plural of sadaqah which is also used in the meanings of charity, zakaat (alms-giving). Here it has been used for the money or its value incumbent on the husband as a right of the women (whom you marry).

Matrimony and other orders regarding wives have been described in these verses. Allah Almighty commands, Give unto the women (whom you marry) free gift of their marriage portions happily at your own, whether anybody urges you to pay or not. As though, if you do so then there is no objection to marry the orphan girls. Objection is in that case if there is a risk of shortness in paying the money or its value incumbent on the husband or their any right.

If the woman of her own accord remits her husband a part thereof with her own pleasure or returns it whole to him after receiving, then there is no harm, the husband can take it happily and absorb it in his wealth. The wife can remit the entire money incumbent to her husband too.

haniii-‘am-mariii-‘aa – (with pleasure and love), the meal, which seems delicious and a person accepts it with pleasure, that is called haniii-‘an and mariii-‘an is that meal which becomes part of the body and means of health and personal strength after digestion.

It has been directed about the little children; particularly the orphans come first out of them that until they are unintelligent, their wealth should not be handed over to them, which Allah Almighty has provided for the humankind’s arrangements of livelihood. But you should preserve their wealth entirely and save it from misappropriation until those children do not become able to understand the difference between profit and loss, good and bad. However, feed and clothe them from it, and satisfy them by speaking kindly that entire wealth is for them, we are protecting it only as their well-wishers. When you will become sensible, this wealth will be handed over to you.

We should considerate, meditate and obey these orders, which Allah Almighty has given to us about the orphans and women. We should pray for Divine guidance to act upon them. Not only the feeding and the clothing but also speaking kindly and fair talk is included in the goodness.   

Bringing Up The Orphans
Training Of Orphans – Under Guardian’s Control
Looking After The Property Of Orphans
Order About Wealth Of Fatherless Children
Handing Over The Property Of Orphans 
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verse – 6 of 176, Section –1/24 (Part – 4)
And test orphans till they reach the marriageable age; then, if ye find them of sound judgment, deliver over unto them their fortune; and devour it not by squandering and in haste lest they should grow up. And whoso (of the guardians) is rich, let him abstain generously (from taking of the property of orphans); and whoso is poor let him take thereof in reason (for his guardianship). Then when ye deliver up their property unto orphans, have (the transaction) witnessed in their presence. Allah sufficeth as a Reckoner.
Wab-talul-yataamaa  hattaaa  ‘izaa  balagun-nikaah.  Fa-‘in  ‘aanastum-minhum  rushdan-fadfa-‘uuu  ‘ilay-him  ‘amwaala-hum.  Wa  laa  ta’-kuluuhaaa  ‘israafanw-wa  bidaaran  ‘any-yakbaruu.  Wa  man-  kaana  ga-niyyan-  fal-yasta’-fif.  Wa  man-kaana  faqiiran-  fal-ya’kul  bil-ma’-ruuf.  Fa-‘izaa  dafa’-tum  ‘ilay-him  ‘amwaalahum  fa-‘ash-hiduu  ‘alayhim.  Wa  kafaa  billaahi  Hasiibaa.

It has been ordered in this verse, “Carry on nourishing and educating the orphans, and testing their sense and comprehension at times till they reach the marriageable age; then, if you find them of sound judgment, then deliver over their property and wealth to them. However if you find that they do not have the required intellect even after reaching the marriageable age, then according to the sect of                              Imam Abu Hanifah, you would have to wait till the age of twenty five years. During this tenure, whenever he/she seems a wise person, then deliver over the wealth and property to them. Otherwise, hand them over their wealth and property after reaching the age of twenty-five years in each condition.

Spending the wealth of orphans more than necessity is prohibited. Do not finish their property in haste due to the intimidation that after reaching the marriageable age, the orphan will get back his/her property. The guardian should not spend the wealth of orphan for his personal use. However, if the guardian is poor then he can take some property propitious to his services in the reason for his guardianship.

Whenever, father of any child expires then it is important to hand over the wealth of orphan with its written detail to a guardian before some Muslims. And when the orphan reaches the marriageable age, then according to that written detail his/her wealth should be gotten returned and how much has been spent out of it, its detail should be explained to the orphan.

Moreover, refund of the property/wealth should be in the presence of the witnesses so that if any dispute arises in future, then the witnesses may help in its settlement. Allah Almighty is Protector and Reckoner of every thing, He does not need any witness or account Himself. It has been determined for the ease of the people only.

Partners Of Legacy And Hereditary Property
Shareholders Of Bequest And Inheritance
Sharers In The Property Of A Deceased Person
Men And Women Are Sharers In The Bequest
Legal Sharers of A Deceased Person’s Property   
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verse – 7 of 176, Section –1/24 (Part – 4)
Unto the men (of a family) belongeth a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, and unto the women a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, whether it be little or much. A legal share.
Lir-rijaali  nasiibum-mimmaa  tarakal-waalidaani  wal-‘aqrabuuna,  wa  linnisaaa-‘i  nasiibum-mimmaa  tarakal-waalidaani  wal-‘aqrabuuna  mimmaa  qalla  minhu  ‘aw  ka-sur.  Nasiibam-mafruuzaa.  

The rights and concessions about orphan children were mentioned in the previous verses. Even that Allah Almighty cleared most petty affairs, which belonged to it, viz. The Mahr (the money or its value incumbent on the husband) of orphan girls should be given without fail, their training and bringing them up should be supervised properly. They should be looked after constantly until they reach the marriageable age. Their property should not be misappropriated. Their wealth should not be finished quickly due to the fear of their adolescence. And when the time of returning the property comes because of their becoming matured, it should be done formal in front of the witnesses.

Before the apostleship of the Messenger of Allah Almighty, Muhammad (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon him), it was a tradition that the daughters could not get the share from the inheritance, either they might be little or older, including the sons who might not reach the marriageable age too. Only the elder sons, who were able to fight against their enemies, were considered heirs. It was the main cause that the orphan children were not given any part of share from the inheritance. This verse was revealed about those people. It has been ordered that the sons either they are adult or little, they will get the share from the hereditary property of parents and near kindred as well as the daughters whether they are adult or little, will also get their share. This verse has finished the traditions of the period of ignorance and safeguarded the rights of orphan children, violation of their rights has been stopped. Detail about fixation of the share of right from the property of a deceased person will be discussed in the next section.

The Heritage Law of Islam is incomparable and has an Exemplary position in the world. Only the sons are considered sharer of the wealth of any deceased person in the maximum countries of the world. No share is given to the daughters. At some places, only elder and adult sons out of the children are imagined rightful heirs and successors.

Islam produced a perfect pattern of justice and equity, fixed the lawful and rightful shares of daughters also like the sons and of the women like other heir men too. The non-Muslims are being necessitated also to accept this Law of Islam in this reign of justice and equation.        


Softness During Heritage Distribution
Gentleness In Distribution Of Inheritance
Bestow The Orphans And Needy From Heritage
Speaking Kindly With The Needy
Mild Behavior At The Division Of Heritage    
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verse – 8 of 176, Section –1/24 (Part – 4)
And when kinsfolk  and orphans and the needy are present at the division (of the heritage), bestow on them therefrom and speak kindly unto them.
Wa  ‘izaa  hazaral-qismata  ‘ulul-qurbaa   wal-yataamaa  wal-masaakiinu  far-zuquuhum-min-hu  wa  quuluu  lahum  qawlam-ma’-ruufaa.

ulul-qurbaa(kinsfolk), close relatives are called ‘ulul-qurbaa and kinsmen.

far-zuquuhum – {bestow on them (something)}, it has been originated from the word rizq, which means a grant.

qawlam-ma’-ruufaa(kindly speaking, fair talk), well known and pleasing talk is called qawlam-ma’-ruufaa, that is to say; such correct saying, which has gotten a credential of a public assent.

If other people of the same kin are present at the time of division of the inheritance, either those persons out of them who do not merit the share from the heritage or the orphans and the needy, they should be returned after causing to drink and feed something. Even if anything is bestowed on them from the heritage, then it is also a good behavior. However, if there is no opportunity of causing to feed or give such people something from the property of inheritance, for instance, the orphans are owners of such property and the deceased person has not bequeathed to give those people something, then they should be seen off speaking them kindly. That is to say, it should be told them very softly that this property belongs to the orphans only and the deceased person has not even left by will for them. Therefore, we are helpless and sorry.

In the beginning of this Chapter (Surah), it was commanded, “Treat the entire kindred and close relatives very kindly, and show partiality with the orphans and the poor.” Therefore, something should be given to those people, and if they have no right of any share due to any reason, then at least they should be behaved in a well manner.

Islam has caused to draw attention repeatedly towards uniting the hearts in friendship. There is description about kinsfolk and close relatives along with the orphans and the poor in these verses. However, at other places, it has been emphasized about the rights of the guests, the neighbors and the strangers also.

When any person is unable to give something or his circumstances have compelled him to stop his hand, then in this form, it has been commanded to adopt the reasonableness in conversation and softness in his taking.  


Suppose The Orphans As Your Own Children
To Be Frightened In Behavior Toward Orphans  
To Behave The Orphans Like Own Offspring
Devouring The Wealth Of Orphans Wrongfully
They Swallow Fire, Who Devour Wealth Of Orphans     
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses – 9 & 10 of 176, Section –1/24 (Part – 4)
9.  And let those fear (in their behaviour toward orphans) who if they left behind them weak offspring would be afraid for them. So let them mind their duty to Allah, and speak justly.

10.  Lo! Those who devour the wealth of orphans wrongfully, they do but swallow fire into their bellies. And they will be exposed to burning flame.
9.  Wal-yakh-shallaziina  law  tarakuu  min  khalfihim  zurriy-yatan- zi-‘aafan  khaafuu  ‘alay-him  fal-yattaqullaaha  wal-yaquuluu  qawlan- sadiidaa.

10.  ‘Innallaziina  ya’-kuluuna  ‘amwaalal-yataamaa  zulman  ‘innamaa  ya’-kuluuna  fii  butuu-nihim  Naaraa.  Wa  sa-yas-lawna  sa-‘iiraa.

Apparently, it seems that this order is for the guardians and the protectors of the orphans but if we observe it minutely then we will find that it is also applicable upon the other people.

As each person out of us fears that anywhere the matter would not be dealt with badness and severely with our children after our death, likewise we should abstain from extortion with the orphan children of others. As you wish that after your death, the people must treat your children with kindness and grace, just like this, you should behave the orphans in a good manner, with mercy and kindness. If you will do so, then you will remain satisfied about your own offspring, and verily, other people will treat your children with softness and elegance like your behavior with others’ orphans.

You should fear from Allah Almighty, talk with the orphans in a pleasant mood and straight forward, so that, they may get encourage, they may be capable of being set to right or cured and may escape from any disaster.

It has been told in the previous verses several times that care is intransitive in connection with spending the wealth of the orphans, because embezzling in their property is a very big sin. Now the punishment regarding embezzlement in the wealth of orphans has been caused to hear that the persons, who devour the wealth of orphans wrongfully, they do but swallow fire into their bellies. That is to say, the end of devouring the property of orphans will be exposing them (who devour) to the burning flame very soon.

There is no utmost limit of friendlessness and helplessness of the orphan. He/she is indigent and seeks support of others. If he/she does not find any trustworthy and kind protector then for him/her, it is not far to be ruined and dissolute. Therefore, Allah Almighty ordered, “Deal honestly and treat kindly with the orphans. The person, who will devour the wealth of this helpless creature wrongfully, will be punished very severely.”  

Proportion of Shares From Inheritance
Male, Female And Parents’ Fair Shares - Heritage 
Justly Division Of Inheritance
Every Heir Male Will Get Double From Female
Allah Has Determined The Shares From Heritage    
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –11 of 176, Section –2/24 (Part – 4)
Allah commands you concerning (the provision for) your children: to the male the equivalent of the portion of two females, and if there be only women more than two, then theirs is two-thirds of the inheritance, and if there be one (only) then for her is the half. And to each of the parents a sixth of the inheritance, if he have a son; and if he have no son and his parents are his heirs, then to his mother appertaineth the third; but if he have brethren, then to his mother appertaineth the sixth, after any legacy he may have bequeathed, or debt (hath been paid). Your parents and your children: Ye know not which of them is nearer unto you in usefulness. It is an injunction from Allah. Lo! Allah is Knower, Wise.  
Yuusii-kumullaahu  fiii  ‘aw-laadikum  lizzakari  mislu  haz-zil-‘unsa-yayn.  Fa-‘in- kunna  nisaaa-‘an  fawqas-natayni  fala-hunna  sulusaa  maa  tarak.  Wa  ‘in-kaanat  waahidatan-  fala-han-nisf.  Wa  li-‘aba-wayhi  likulli  waahidim-min-humas-sudusu  mimmaa  taraka  ‘in-kaana  lahuu  walad.  Fa-‘illam  yakullahuu  waladunw-wa  wa-risahuuu  ‘abawaahu  fali- ‘um-mihis-sulus.  Fa-‘in-  kaana  lahuuu  ‘ikh-watun-  fali- ‘ummi-his-sudusu  mim-  ba’-di  wa-siy-yatiny-yuusii  bihaaa  ‘aw  dayn.  ‘Aabaaa-‘ukum,  wa  ‘abnaaa- ‘ukum  laa  tadruna  ‘ayyuhum  ‘aqrabu  lakum  naf-‘aa.  Farii-zatam-minallah.  ‘Innallaaha  kaana  ‘Aliiman  Hakiimaa.  

Yuusii-kum(commands you), this word has been derived from wasi-yat, which means a last will, legacy, command and testament left by any deceased person. However, in this verse Allah Almighty is commanding directly about the proportion of the shares for the men, women and the parents.

Division of inheritance is most important maxim of our social life. Even success of the society is connected with its accurate distribution. Common principle about the division of the heritage has been determined here that each male will get double while each female will be given single portion, whether the male and the female are one and one, or any of them is more in number.   

haz-zil-‘unsa-yayn – (equal to two women), according to certain Divine Laws, the female has no portion from the inheritance. During the period of ignorance also, the heritage was used to divide only in the marriageable men. Against this violence, the voice arose in the present time that the portion from inheritance should be divided equal between the male and the female. Islamic Law is among the both in this matter, which has determined the portion double for the male (men) from the female (women).

Its first reason is that the woman is responsible only to train the children. She is neither responsible, nor would think about the livelihood. The male has been held responsible to provide the expenses for his wife, children and other members of his family. Therefore, it is exactly reasonable and according to just, that he should be given more portions from the heritage.

Another reason may be too that the married woman usually gets dowry from her parents (the portion from her father’s earnings) in addition to her husband’s inheritance, but the man receives his share only from one side.

If there are just two girls then their total portion will be two-third and each of them will get one-third. Then whether the girls are how more than the two, their collective portion from the heritage will remain the same i.e. two-third. Remaining one-third share will be given to other kinsfolk and relatives.

If there is only one girl then she will get half portion of total heritage and remaining half portion will be distributed to other relatives. But if the relatives etc are not present then that remaining half will also be given to the girl.

If there is no daughter but only the son (whether one or more than one), then they will be the heirs of the whole legacy.

Three forms of inheritance for the father and mother have also been  described in this verse:
1.  If the deceased person had children then each of his parents will get sixth portion from the inheritance.

2.  If the dead person had no children, and only parents are the heirs, then the mother will get one-third while the father two-third.

3.  If the late person had brothers and sisters more than one, whether they are real or only from the father-side or only from the mother-side, and had no child then the mother will get sixth portion and the remaining wealth will be given to the father. Brother and sister will get nothing. Moreover, if he had only one brother or one sister then mother will get one-third and the two-third will be given to the father.  

It is compulsory that the heirs will be given their portion from the heritage after the payment of late person’s debts and will. Wealth of the deceased person should be used on his shroud and burial first, then his/her debts be paid from it, then out of the remaining portion of the property, up to one third would be used as per the Will of the deceased person. Now, what is remaining, that should be distributed between the heirs.

After that, Allah Almighty commanded that you do not know about the person, which of them is nearer unto you in usefulness. It is an injunction from Allah Almighty, you should not interfere in the fixed portions but the portion that Allah Almighty has fixed, you should abide by them. 

Hereditary Of Husband And Wife
After Any Legacy Or Debt, Heritage Will Be Divided     
Portion Of Hereditary For Wife, Husband etc
Share From Hereditary For Distant Heirs
Heirs Of Wife And Husband    
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –12a of 176, Section –2/24 (Part – 4)
And unto you belongeth a half of that which your wives leave, if they have no child; but if they have a child then unto you the fourth of that which they leave, after any legacy they may have bequeathed, or debt (they may have contracted, hath been paid). And unto them belongeth the fourth of that which ye leave if ye have no child, but if ye have a child then the eighth of that which ye leave, after any legacy ye may have bequeathed, or debt (ye may have contracted, hath been paid). And if a man or a woman have a distant heir (having left neither parent nor child), and he (or she) have a brother or a sister (only on the mother’s side) then to each of them twain (the brother and the sister) the sixth.
Wa  lakum  nisfu  maa  taraka  ‘azwaa-jukum  ‘illam-  yakulla-hunna  walad.  Fa-‘in-  kaana  lahunna  waladun-  falakumur-rubu-‘u  mimmaa  tarakna  mim-  ba’-di  Wa-siyyatiny-yuusiina  bihaaa  ‘aw  dayn.  Wa  lahun-nar-rubu-‘u  mimmaa  taraktum  ‘illam-yakul-lakum  walad.  Fa-‘in- kaana  lakum  waladun-falahunnas-sumunu  mimmaa  taraktum-mim- ba’-di  Wa-siy-yatin  tuu-suuna  bihaaa  ‘aw  dayn.  Wa  ‘in-  kaana  rajuluny-yuu-rasu  kalaalatan  ‘a-wimra- ‘atunw-wa  lahuuu  ‘akhun  ‘aw  ‘ukhtun-  fali-kulli  waahidim-min-humas-sudus.

Hereditary of Husband and wife have been described in this verse. That is to say, the husband will take half from the wealth of his wife on the condition that the woman has no child. But if the woman has some children, either from her present husband or any previous, then her husband will be given fourth of that which she leaves. However, before distribution of the hereditary, any legacy she may have bequeathed, or debt, which she may have contracted, shall be paid first.

Like this, the wife will get fourth of that which her husband leaves, provided that the husband has no child, whether from this wife or any other woman. Otherwise, she will get eighth of that which he will leave after payment of any legacy he may has bequeathed, or debt he may has contracted.

Every kind of property and wealth will be included in the inheritance, whether that is cash or articles, moveable or unmovable, ornaments or bars of precious metals and houses or gardens. But the money or its value incumbent on her husband, will be counted in the debt.

These Rules of Allah Almighty about the hereditary are quite full with wisdom and advisability. Our success is hidden in accepting them and acting upon them.  

Kalaalah (the person, who does not have his father or son), all theologians of Islam admit this explanation, but Imam Abu Hanifah says that the grandmother and granddaughter should also be not in addition to the father and the son (that person should not have father, son, grandmother and granddaughter). In this connection, which order is for the father and the son that is for the grandmother and the granddaughter too. However, difference of opinion in this respect, is from the very first between the theologians. 

Now there is description about hereditary of such brothers and sisters, who become heirs only from the mother-side. It is the Rule that while father and son are present, then brother and sister will get nothing. If the father and the son are not living, then brother and sister will get portion of hereditary. There are three types of brothers and sisters:

1.    Own – those brothers and sisters, who have same father and mother. They are called ‘ainii.
2.    Step-brothers and sisters, who are brothers and sisters due to father only, are called ‘alaatii.

3.    Brothers or sisters by the same mother but by a different father are called ‘akhyaafii

Recitation in this verse is about the last type of brothers and sisters.

If the deceased person does not have any close from the father, the mother, the son or the daughter, but he/she have one ‘akhyaafii brother or ‘akhyaafii sister, then each of both will get sixth of that which they leave. Share from hereditary for akhyaafii brother and ‘akhyaafii sister is equal, nobody will be given more or less.    

As far as it concerns about other two types of brothers and sisters, that is to say; ‘ainii and ’alaatii, order for these both types is just like own children on condition that the deceased person does not have father or son. ‘ainii brother or sister gets first priority. If they are not alive then ’alaatii brothers and sisters will get their turn. 

Lent Money And Legacy
Bequest And Debt   
The Testament Left By The Deceased Person
Debt Is To Be Paid Before Dividing The Heritage
Commandment From Allah About Inheritance    
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –12b of 176, Section –2/24 (Part – 4)
And if they be more than two, then they shall be sharers in the third, after any legacy that may have been bequeathed or debt (contracted) not injuring (the heirs by willing away more than a third of the heritage) hath been paid. A commandment from Allah. And Allah is Knower, Indulgent.
Fa-‘in  kaanuuu  ‘ak-sara  min  zaalika  fahum  shura-kaaa-‘u  fissulusi  mim- ba’-di  Wasiyyatiny-yuu-saa  bihaaa ‘aw  daynin,  gayra  muzaaarr.  Wa-siyyatam-minal-laah,  wAllaahu  ‘Aliimun  Ha-liim.

If step-brothers and sisters from the mother side (‘akhyaafii) are more than one, then they all will be paid one-third from the wealth of inheritance. However, debt will be returned and the bequeathed legacy will be made up first, provided that the other persons are not harmed due to the bequest. There are two forms of loss:

·       The legacy is for more than one-third of the heritage.

·       The will has been bequeathed also for that heir, who will be given share from the inheritance.

These both forms are not in order. If the entire heirs accept them then in this form, these are correct.

It has been ordered repeatedly about the debt and the legacy besides heritage, because there was a suspicion that the heirs would not divide the wealth before paying the debt and fulfilling the bequest of the deceased person.

Five kinds of heritages have been described with effect from the beginning of this section (Rukuuu’) – Son and daughter, mother and father, ‘akhyaafii (step-brother and sister by the same mother). These five kinsfolk are partners in the heritage. After explaining their shares in the inheritance, it has been commanded emphatically “It is order of Allah Almighty. Carrying out this order is unavoidable and He knows about the person, who obeyed, who disobeyed, who played fair in the payment of debt and acted upon the legacy and distribution of the inheritance.”

Another kind of heirs exists too besides these sharers which is called “’Asbah” (Kinsmen). Their share from the inheritance has not been fixed from any relation. But they will be given that part from the heritage which has remained after handing the portions over to the real heirs. That is to say, if any deceased person does not have any heir but the relatives (’Asbah), then the kinsmen will take that person’s entire wealth and property as next for heirs. If the both kinds are present, then remaining from the heirs, will be given to (’Asbah) and if nothing has remained, then they will get nothing.

Actually ’Asbah is that male who does not have relationship with the deceased person from the woman side. As per priority, it has following four grades:

1.   Son and the grandson

2.  Father and grandfather

3.  Brother and nephew

4.  Uncle (brother of father), his son (cousin) or his grandson

If there are many persons, then whoever is close to the deceased person, he will be antecedent, like son than grandson, brother than nephew and a full (son, father, brother or uncle) than the step (son, father or brother etc). Besides these four, woman is also ’Asbah along with the man in the children and brothers.

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore and Siraatul Jinaan fii Tafsiirul Qur’an (  (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif)

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