Monday, December 29, 2014

And marry not those women whom your fathers married


Lessons 482 to 493

LESSON # 482 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
The Bounds Of Allah Almighty
Limits Of God Almighty
Who Will Transgress Limits, He Will Face Doom
The Obedient Will Enter The Gardens
Paradise Is For Obedient, Hell Is For Disobedient
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –13 & 14 of 176, Section –2/24 (Part – 4)
 
13.  These are the bounds of Allah. And whoso obeyeth Allah and His Messenger, He will make him enter Gardens underneath which rivers flow, where such will dwell for ever. And that will be the great success.

14.  And whoso disobeyeth Allah and His Messenger and transgresseth His limits, He will make him enter Fire, where he will dwell for ever; his will be a shameful doom. 
13.  Tilka  Huduudul-laah.  Wa  many-  yuti-‘il-laaha  wa  Rasuulahuu  yudkhil-hu  Jannaatin-  tajrii  min-  tahti-  hal-  ‘anhaaru  khaalidiina  fii-haa.  Wa  zaalikal-fawzul- ‘aziim.

14.  Wa  many-ya’-sillaaha  wa Rasuulahuu  wa  yata-‘adda  huduudahuu  yud-khilhu  Naaran  khaalidiina  fiihaa;  wa  lahuu  ‘azaabum-muhiin.

Lesson
       
Huduudul-laah(The bounds of Allah), Huduud is plural of Hadd which means limit, bound. Hadd is the place, where any thing ends. That is to say; the last edge and that line, which is not permitted to be crossed. Huduudul-laah aims, those fixed principles, rules and restrictions, getting on them is not allowed. For instance; restrictions about eating and drinking, fixed portions of inherited wealth etc.

yata-‘adda  - (transgressing, passing beyond, violating, breaking), ta-‘addii, ‘adwaan are also from this word’s origin, which means “crossing the prescribed bounds and disobeying the orders of Allah Almighty by breaking the restrictions.

Allah Almighty guided in detail about the number of matrimony and orphans. Then cleared the commands of heritage, its fixed portions and the legacy.

After all, it is being ordained, “an eternal blessing of the Paradise and successful life in the world is for those persons who obey Allah Almighty and His Messenger (grace, glory, blessing and peace be upon him). Those people who will not admit the prescribed laws and will overstep the bounds, they will proceed to Hell and face a shameful doom.      

It is known from this verse that oppressing in the distribution of inheritance is the cause of torment by Allah Almighty. Those Muslims should take it warning, who refuse to give the portion of heritage to the girls and other heirs. It is Saying of the Messenger of Allah Almighty (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon him), “The person, who forfeits the heir’s right from inheritance, Allah Almighty will forfeit him from his share in Paradise on the Day of Resurrection.” (Ibn Maajah, Kitaabul Wasaayaa, Baabul Hayf fil Wasi-yyah 3.4/3, Al-Hadith: 2703)  

In these verses, there is a promise of Paradise from Allah Almighty on obedience of His last Messenger (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon him) and a threat of Hell on His disobedience.  


LESSON # 483 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Guilty Of Lewdness – Punishment For
Punishment Of Lewd Male And Female   
Chastisement Of Sensual Persons
The Lewds’ Punishment
Torment Against Lewdness And Sodomy   
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –15 & 16 of 176, Section –3/24 (Part – 4)
 
15.  And as for those of your women who are guilty of lewdness, call to witness four of you against them. Then if they testify (to the truth of the allegation) then confine them to the houses until death take them or (until) Allah appoint for them a way (through new legislation).

16.  And as for the two of you who are guilty thereof, punish them both. But if they repent and improve, then let them be. Lo! Allah is Ever-Relenting, Merciful.
15.  Wallaa-tii  ya’-tiinal-faahi-shata  min-nisaaa-‘ikum  fas-tash-hiduu  ‘alayhinna  ‘arb- ‘atam-minkum.  Fa-‘in  shahiduu  fa-‘amsikuuhunna  fil-bu-yuuti  hattaa  yatawaffaa-hun-nal-mawtu  ‘aw  yaj-‘alallaahu  lahunna  sabiilaa.

16.  Wallazaani  ya’-tiyaanihaa  minkum  fa- ‘aazuuhumaa.  Fa-‘in-taabaa  wa  ‘aslahaa  fa- ‘a’- ri-zuu  ‘anhumaa.  ‘Innallaaha  kaana  Taw-waabar-Rahiimaa.

Lesson

Punishment For Lewd Women

‘al-faahi-shata(lewdness), this word has been derived from Fahash which means ‘obscenity’. faahi-shah has two meanings the shameless and the sinful woman. As per dictionary, each such word and deed is called Fahash, which is bad, and mention of which is unpleasant to say and hear. Probably due to this reason, the word faahi-shah has been used for an unchaste woman.

‘as-tash-hiduu  ‘alayhinna  ‘arb- ‘atam-minkum -  (call to witness four of you against them), as much as the shamelessness and lewdness is an abject and dangerous crime and as much as its punishment is severe, exactly that much caution in its  announcement and punishment is necessary. It has been commanded here that for the determination of evidence and punishment of this offense, you would have to bring four of you witnesses against them. In common matters, only two witnesses are enough but in the case of fornication, four witnesses have been obliged, and in addition, those witnesses should be Muslims, and not non-Muslims.

This verse has been explained as, “There is a need of four witnesses to punish the woman if she is caught in the case of ‘al-faahi-shah (lewdness). After evidence, her punishment is to confine in the house, until either she does not die, or Allah Almighty do not provide any other way for her.”

Punishment For The Guilty Men Of Sodomy

‘Allazaani(the two men of you), in the earlier verse there was order for punishment to the women who are offender of lewdness and sinfulness. In this verse, the punishment of guilty men of sodomy has been described. The word ’Allazaani signifies towards the male. The commentators of Holy Qur’an took its meaning as those two men who are culprits of homosexuality or those men who commit lewdness with any woman unlawfully.

‘aazuuhumaa - (punish both of them), the words ‘aziy-yat, ‘iizaa etc are from the same origin which mean oppression, annoyance, hurting and pain, etc. In the meanings of this word, every type of trouble, difficulty and suffering are included. It was proclaimed to punish the lewd women by confining them in their houses. The punishment for the guilty men has been prescribed in the second verse as to torture them, and responsibility of its fixation has been given to the person, who has Power of Divine Law of Religion (the Muslim Ruler).

Allah Almighty has prescribed the punishment of fornication as one hundred whips as per Surah Nuur in Holy Qur’an and commanded that neither this punishment should be lessened, nor softened, but it should be punished publicly before entire people. Apparently, these physical punishments by Islam seem very severe and tough but in fact, nature of crimes demands these types of punishments. Secondly, these punishments prevent the crimes resultantly, whereas, light imprisonment and punishment of penalty of present times has become cause of increasing the crimes Instead of decreasing them.

Islam wants rectification and correction in the world. Therefore, it considered these crimes as very bad acts, and prescribed their punishments as much severe that they would remove the crimes and the evils would end from the world.

It has also been commanded, “Leave the criminals of lewdness whenever they repent and reform.” Explanation about the Repentance has been stated many times earlier, that is to say, confessing one’s mistakes by feeling them as bad and admitting to leave them. In the verse, “Correction and Rectification” has also been determined necessary with the repentance for more emphasis. After that, the good news has been given to the persons, who repent that Allah Almighty is Ever-Relenting, and most Merciful. We should remain hopeful of His blessings always.


LESSON # 484 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Repentance
Penitence   
Sorrow For Sins
Forgiveness For Them Who Repent
Feeling Sorrow For Evil-doings And Sins   
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –17 of 176, Section –3/24 (Part – 4)
 
Forgiveness is only incumbent on Allah toward those who do evil in ignorance (and) then turn quickly (in repentance) to Allah; these are they toward whom Allah relenteth. And Allah is ever Knower, Wise.
‘Innamat-tawbatu  ‘alal-laahi  lillaziina ya’-maluunas-suuu-‘a  bi-jahaalatin  summa  yatuubuuna  min-  qariibin-  fa-‘ulaaa-‘ika  yatuu-bullaahu  ‘alayhim.  Wa  kaanallaahu  ‘Aliiman  Hakiimaa.

Lesson

 Tawbah literal meanings of this word are, “to come back, to return, coming back again towards that place, which was left”. Whenever any person offends, he falls back from the attendance of Allah Almighty. He should return towards Allah Almighty. In this condition, he should accept his mistake and promise honestly that he would not repeat such mistake in future, and he should stand firm upon it. It is called tawbah. Only using the word tawbah by tongue repeatedly, does not have any weight. Repentance will be acceptable at that time, when someone feels sorrow upon his/her bad acts and accepts with heart that he/she will never do such improper action again.

Allah Almighty commanded about some big evils and sins, like fornication/adultery, sodomy and their punishments. Then He told that He forgives also such crimes, provided that, the sinners turn quickly in repentance to Allah Almighty, correct their deeds and refrain from committing this sin again in future; these are the persons, toward whom Allah Almighty relents. But remember! That Allah Almighty has taken responsibility to forgive and relent only such people, who committed any sin due to ignorance or with stupidity and feel shame immediately, when they know about the sin and badness, and they promise to escape from such wicked deeds in future. Allah Almighty forgives the mistakes of such people urgently. He knows every thing. His Knowledge is most spacious. He knows that who has did evil intentionally or unintentionally, and who repented with purity. His all works are full of wisdom.

Two conditions have been applied upon acceptance of the repentance:

·       The persons, who do evil in ignorance.

·       They turn quickly in repentance to Allah.

It has been revealed that the person, who does evil due to ignorance and as soon as he gets warning, turns quickly toward the repentance, according to the Law of Allah Almighty, certainly his repentance will be accepted. And the person, who presumes to disobey the order of Allah Almighty, do not turn immediately toward repentance after knowing himself sinful. Moreover, he used to delay in feeling the sorrow for his sins and remained in rather state, then according to the principle of justice his mistake is not forgivable. However, Allah Almighty may forgive being Merciful and Kind enough.

After knowing the glad tiding about acceptance of the repentance, it is compulsory for us to turn quickly towards Allah Almighty, whenever any sin occurs from us knowingly or unknowingly. We should also promise not to repeat it again in future. We should pray from Allah Almighty to pardon our sins and be entitled of forgiveness. Allah Almighty revealed the good news that whenever any person walks one step towards Him, His Mercy walks ten steps towards that person.        



LESSON # 485 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Forgiveness Is Not For Those Who Do Ill-deeds
False Repentance   
Repentance At The Time Of Death Is Not Acceptable
Disbelievers Will Not Be Forgiven
Painful Doom Is Waiting Who Do Not Repent   
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –18 of 176, Section –3/24 (Part – 4)
 
And the forgiveness is not for those who do ill-deeds until, when death attendeth upon one of them, he saith: Lo! I repent now; nor yet for those who die while they are disbelievers. For such We have prepared a painful doom.
Wa  laysa-tittaw-bata  lil-laziina  ya’-maluunas-sayyi-‘aat.  Hattaaa  ‘izaa  hazara ‘aha-dahumul—mawtu  qaala  ‘inni  tubtul-‘aana  wa  lallaziina  ya-muutuuna  wa  hum  kuffaar.  ‘Ulaaa-‘ika  ‘a’-tadnaa  lahum  ‘azaaban  ‘aliimaa. 

Lesson

It has been described in this verse that the repentance of such people will never be accepted and they will never be forgiven who continue to do ill-deeds and neither they refrain from the sins, nor feel shame on their evil acts, to this degree that when the death attends upon one of them, then they say, “I repent now”. Likewise, the forgiveness is not for those who die while they are disbelievers and when they feel the signs of death, then say, “I repent.” For such people Allah Almighty has prepared a painful doom.

There is a proper time for the repentance, which has been described, in the previous lesson. This verse signifies that those persons who used to do ill-deeds and disobedience during their entire life, when they reached the death’s door and the bells of life’s end pronounced, then they began to cry, “I repent.” Likewise, the repentance of such people is also useless who are drawing their last breaths in the form of infidelity. Apparent reason of non-acceptance of such repentance is that until the punishment is in the invisible veil, till then, fear from the punishment and due to this fear, to repent from the sins discloses the Faith in Unseen. At the death’s point, one observes some signs of punishment for his evil-deeds, and after observation, Belief in Unseen do not remain. Therefore, neither belief is acceptable, nor repentance is useful at the time of manifesting the punishment or reward.
                                              
Notwithstanding this, the repentance is not only to confess the sin but its aim is to correct and rectify the future life with the repentance. If someone repents at the death point while there is no more chance and capability of correction, then the repentance is not useful in such condition. Pharoha also did such repentance. However, if anybody repents a moment before reaching the life at its last point, then it is acceptable and if the repentance of these Muslims is not accepted, even then these persons will not remain in to the Hell forever. If Allah Almighty wishes, they may be forgiven. Nevertheless, if they are not forgiven and are punished, then after completion of the punishment they will proceed to the Paradise. However, those people who died upon infidelity, their repentance is not acceptable on the Day of Judgment. They will be fallen into the torment pain of Hell forever.  



 LESSON # 486 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Women Of The dead Should Not Be Inherited
No Constraint To Be Put On Wife Which She Has Been Given
Consorting With Wife In Kindness
It May Happen That Allah Has Placed Better, Whom You Hate
It Is Unlawful To Inherit The Women Of Deceased Kinsmen  
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –19 of 176, Section –3/24 (Part – 4)
 
O ye who believe! It is not lawful for you to inherit the women (of your deceased kinsmen) forcibly, nor (that) ye should put constraint upon them that ye may take away a part of that which ye have given them, unless they be guilty of flagrant lewdness. And consort with them in kindness, for if ye hate them it may happen that ye hate a thing wherein Allah hath placed much good 
Yaaa- ‘ayyu-hallaziina  ‘aamanuu  laa  yahillu  lakum  ‘an-tarisun-nisaaa-‘a  karhaa.  Wa  laa  ta’-zuluuhunna  litazhabuu  bi-ba’-zi  maaa  ‘aatay-tumuu-hunna  ‘illaaa  ‘any-ya’-tiina  bifaa-hishatim-mubayyinah.  Wa  ‘aashiruu-hunna  bil-ma’-ruuf.  Fa- ‘in-  karih-tumuu-hunna  fa-‘asaaa  ‘an-  takrahuu  shay-‘anw-wa  yaj-‘alallaahu  fiihi  khay-ran-  kasiiraa.   

Lesson

After telling about the lewdness and its punishment, now that tyranny of the ignorance is being obstructed which used to be upon the women. There was prevalent in to them that whenever any male died, then either deceased person’s step-son or brother or his any heir used to take hold of his wife. If he wished, either he used to marry her or keep her in his house without marriage, or let her married to some other male and used to get her Mahr (the money or its value incumbent on the husband) from him, or keep her in his own custody entire life and used to become heir of her wealth and property.

It has been ordered in the Holy Qur’an that whenever any male expires, then her wife have authority about her marriage. Any brother or heir of the person died has not this power to get married with her forcibly. If the woman be guilty of flagrant lewdness then she should be stopped. Otherwise, you should consort with the women in kindness and good behavior. If you do not like any habit of any woman, then have patience. It may happen that she would have much good. You do not know that what Allah Almighty has kept gain for you in to her. Personal sense of the human being is weak and knowledge is limited. Knowledge of Allah Almighty is much vast and unlimited.

Advantages Of Positive Thought: Positive thinking means, “Meditate in sound sides also if you find any form of badness in any work or thing, because it may happen that goodness have more better sides in to it than its bad sides or sound side may be more useful for you”. For example; one’s wife is ugly but she has good children from such male. Then the result will be that his wife will slip away as well as his children will also be left and he would face such bitterness, mental torture, war for getting his children and fights for rights during remaining entire life that he will never feel relax.     

Likewise, any person has been appointed in an office but he is not liked. Nevertheless, due to him, the system of the office is running very smoothly. Now although it is not liked to keep him in service, but kicking him out only due to unlikeness will ruin the entire system. Therefore, it is much better to bear such person keeping in view his/her advantages on such appointment.  



LESSON # 487 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Sum of Mahr  Should Not Be Taken Back From Wife
Taking Back Of Mahr Is Calumny and Open Wrong
Your Wives Have Taken a Strong Pledge From You
 Money or Its Value Incumbent on Husband (Mahr)  
Nobody Should Take Back The Money Of Mahr
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –20 & 21 of 176, Section –3/24 (Part – 4)
 
20.  And if ye wish to exchange one wife for another and ye have given unto one of them a sum of money (however great), take nothing from it. Would ye take it by the way of calumny and open wrong?

21.  How can ye take it (back) after one of you hath gone in unto the other, and they have taken a strong pledge from you?
20.  Wa  ‘in  ‘arattumus-tib-daala  zawjim-makaana  zawjinw-wa  ‘aataytum  ‘ihdaahun-na  qintaaran  falaa  ta’-khuzuu  minhu  shay-‘aa.  ‘A-ta’-khuzuu-nahuu  buhtaananw-wa  ‘is-mam-mubiinaa.

21.  Wa  kayfa  ta’khuzuuna-huu  wa  qad  ‘afzaa  ba’-zukum  ‘ilaa  ba’-zinw-wa  ‘akhazna  minkum-miisaaqan  galiizaa.  

Lesson

During the times of ignorance before Islam, there was a tradition too that whenever any person used to wish to marry some other woman leaving the earlier wife, in that case he used to accuse her wife falsely and tyrannize her of various sorts. So that she might return the money of mahr under compulsion and get divorce, in like manner, this money may be used in the second marriage. It has been restricted in these verses that while you have given much wealth to your first wife and now you wish to marry any other woman leaving the first, then you should not take back that wealth or money. It is unlawful to take back the given money from the first wife by the way of calumny and open wrong.

At the very time, the man and the woman have gone in unto one another, kept company with each other and reached the certain point of copulation, then the mahr (the money or its value incumbent on the husband) has become payable upon the man to his wife. How can it be lawful for the husband to get back that money of mahr and how can he press the woman if she does not want to return? There can be only one mode to get back the mahr i.e. if the woman exempts it with her pleasure. While these women have taken a strong pledge from you and you have reaped the complete advantage from them, then how can it be lawful either not to pay them or get back the money (incumbent on you) of mahr, which you have already paid?

Remember it that as after copulation the entire mahr becomes incumbent on the husband to be paid, like this, if correct solitude has taken place between the two (husband and wife), even then complete mahr will be payable. However, if they have not reached the point of correct solitude and the husband has divorced her wife, then the mahr will be paid half. These matters have already been discussed in chapter -2 (Surah ‘Al-Baqarah).    




LESSON # 488 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
The Mothers Should Be Treated With Respect
Marry Not the Women Whom Your Fathers Married
Respect Of Mothers
 To Marry The Mother Is Lewdness And Abomination 
Veneration Of The Mothers
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –22 of 176, Section –3/24 (Part – 4)
 
And marry not those women whom your fathers married, except what hath already happened (of that nature) in the past. Lo! it was ever lewdness and abomination. And an evil way.
Wa  laa  tankihuu  maa  nakaha  ‘aabaaa- ‘ukum-minan-nisaaa-‘i  ‘illaa  maa qad  salaf.  ‘Innahuu  kaana  faahishatanw-wa  maqtaa.  Wa  saaa-‘a  sabii-laa.

Lesson

laa  tankihuu( do not marry), the word “Nikaah” is used in the meanings of relationship between husband and wife in Arabic. Here it can be inferred in the both meanings (the marriage knot and the matrimonial relationship).

‘aabaaa- ‘ukum  - (your fathers), its singular is ‘abun. Besides the actual father, here grandfathers (paternal and maternal grandfather both) are included in its meaning.

maa  nakaha  ‘aabaaa- ‘ukum(whom your fathers married), it signifies towards that unlawful tradition of the period of ignorance, by which the step-mothers were also used to be married and they did not use to consider it improper or opprobrious.

The people used to marry their stepmothers during the times of ignorance. In this verse, it has been forbidden that the women whom your fathers have married, it is unlawful to marry them, although the father has divorced her before intercourse. Moreover, if marriage means copulation, then it is known that the father keeps company with whom woman, whether after marriage or in the form of fornication or as bondwoman, in each condition she is unlawful for the son because she is like a mother for the son. It is a matter of disgusting, lewdness, an evil way and abomination. There is no doubt in it that even during the period of ignorance, some wise people used to comprehend it despised. Allah Almighty commands, “Refrain from such marriages in future. However, there will be no accountability, what has already happened (of that nature) in the past.

maa qad  salaf(what has already happened), it means that there is no sin on you for the nuptial knots which were fixed during the times of ignorance, and now may be those women would have died also, because that sin was before this law. Keep a matter in your mind here that if any Zoroastrian embraces Islam, and he has already married his mother or sister, then it is his duty to leave her, but those women whom he married during the time of infidelity, children from them will be lawful, because these kinds of Divine Laws are not for the disbelievers.    

Holy Qur’an has used three words to prohibit from this type of marriage and those three words indicate apart from each other:

1.     faahishatun(the lewdness) because this type of marriage is a big lewdness it self, in addition to considering it prudently bad. 

2.     maqtan – (abomination), besides abomination and rage, this word is used for each that thing, observing which one feels an aversion in one’s nature. Therefore, for the nice people, it is a very bad thing. 

3.     saaa-‘a  sabii-laa(an evil way), saaa-‘a means bad. Suuu’ is also used in these meanings. sabii-laa (conduct, character), literally it means ‘the way, path’. Due to such suitableness, this word has been used here in the meaning of ‘the character’. 



LESSON # 489 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Forbidden Women For Marriage
Nobody Can Marry The Women, Who Are Forbidden
Seven Relative Women Are Forbidden
 Foster Mother, Sister and Daughter etc Are Also Forbidden 
Marry Not The Forbidden Women
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –23a of 176, Section –4/24 (Part – 4)
 
Forbidden unto you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your father’s sisters, and your mother’s sisters, and your brother’s daughters, and your sister’s daughters, and your foster-mothers, and your foster-sisters,
Hurrimat  ‘alaykum  ‘um-mahaa-tukum  wa  banaa-tukum  wa  ‘akhawaa-tukum  wa  ‘am-maa-tukum  wa  khaalaa-tukum  wa  banaatul-‘akhi  wa  banaatul-‘ukhti  wa  ‘umma-haatukumul-laatii  ‘arza’-nakum  wa  ‘akha-waa-tukum-minar-razaa-‘ati 

Lesson

‘ar-razaa-‘ati (foster relatives), it aims the woman, who is not real mother, but who suckles any other child. Real children of that woman are called foster-brothers and foster-sisters of that child, and that woman is called his/her foster-mother.

Allah Almighty had described unlawfulness of marriage with the step-mother in the previous verses. Now those other women are being mentioned here, with whom the marriage is prohibited. This detail is very clear, so there is no form of dissension or misunderstanding now.

These women belong to some different kinds. At first those, who are unlawful due to genealogical relationship and they are seven – 1.  Mother, 2.  Daughter, 3.  Sister, 4.  Paternal Aunt,  5.  Maternal Aunt, 6.  Brother’s Daughter (Niece), 7.  Sister’s Daughter (Niece). None is permitted to marry any one out of these seven close relatives.

As paternal and maternal grandmothers (and upwards) are included in the prohibition order of marriage with the mother, likewise, grand-daughters (daughter of the son and daughter of the daughter and downwards) are also included in the prohibition order of marriage with the daughter. Marriage with the sisters, ‘ainii (sisters, who have same father and mother), ‘alaatii (sisters due to father only) and ‘akhyaafii (sisters by the same mother but by a different father) is also prohibited including father’s and mother’s sisters, grandfather’s and grandmother’s (and their upwards) sisters. Real and step-sisters of above all are included. In addition, the nieces, (daughters of all above kinds of brothers and sisters, and their downwards) come also in this category.

Besides genealogical forbidden relatives, there are some foster relatives too, prohibited to be married. These are two – mother and sister, and seven others, which have been described above in the genealogical relationship {Mother, Daughter, Sister, Paternal Aunt, Maternal Aunt, Brother’s Daughter (Niece), Sister’s Daughter (Niece)}. These are also unlawful to be married in the fostering relationship. That is to say; foster-daughter, foster-aunt (either paternal or maternal), foster-niece (either paternal or maternal), all are unlawful to be married. These details and likewise other orders in this connection exist in the ‘Ahaadith (Sayings of Messenger, Muhammad (grace, glory, blessings and peace of Allah Almighty be upon him) with explanation.




LESSON # 490 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Other Forbidden Women For Marriage
Women Other Than Those, Who Are Forbidden Earlier
Besides Seven Relative Women, Who Are Forbidden
 Following Women Are Also Forbidden 
You Should Not Marry Also Following Women
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –23b of 176, Section –4/24 (Part – 4)
 
And your mothers-in-law, and your step-daughters, who are under your protection (born) of your women unto whom ye have gone in – but if ye have not gone in unto them, then it is no sin foe you (to marry their daughters) – and the wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins. And (it is forbidden unto you) that ye should have two sisters together, except what hath already happened (of that nature) in the past. Lo! Allah is Ever – Forgiving, Merciful.
wa  ‘umma-haatu  nisaaa- ‘ikum  wa  rabaaa- ‘ibukumul-laatii  fii  hu-juurikum-min-nisaaa- ‘ikumul-laatii  dakhaltum-  bihinn.  Fa- ‘illam  takuunuu  dakhaltum-  bi-hinna  falaa  hunaaha  ‘alay-kum;  wa  halaaa-‘ilu  ‘abnaaa- ‘ikumullaziina  min  ‘aslaa-bi-kum,  wa  ‘an- tajma- ‘uu  baynal- ‘ukhtayni  ‘illaa  maa  qad  salaf.  ‘Innallaaha  kaana Gafuurar-Rahiimaa.

Lesson

Those forbidden women have been described in this verse, which are unlawful due to the relationship of marriage. These are of two types:

1.  Those women, with whom marriage is unlawful forever, like mother of wife and daughter of that wife, with whom you have copulated. However, if any woman has been divorced before copulation then you can marry her daughter. The wives of the sons and downwards like grandsons (whether they are paternal or maternal) are also forbidden for you to be married with them.

2.  The women, who are not prohibited to be married by you forever, but they are forbidden until any woman remains in the nuptial knot. Only until that time the marriage is prohibited with the wife’s close relative women. But if either you have divorced your wife or she has died then marriage with her close relative women will become lawful. Those women are – sister of the wife, who cannot be married in the life and presence of the wife, but she can be married afterwards. The same order applies also upon aunt and niece (paternal and maternal).

Here it has been ordered that the wives of your sons are unlawful to be married with them, who (the sons) are from your generation. It aims your genealogical sons and grandsons. Adopted sons do not include in it.

At the end, Allah Almighty commanded that the mistakes, which were committed before Islam, would not be repeated inquiry. However, after the revelation of the order of Allah Almighty none should do against it.



LESSON # 491 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Marry The Women In Honest Wedlock
Do Not Marry For Debauchery
All Married Women Are Forbidden
 Conditions For The Nuptial 
Bounds Of The Marriage
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –24a of 176, Section –4/24 (Part – 5)
 
And all married women (are forbidden unto you) save those (captives) whom your right hands possess. It is a Decree of Allah for you. And lawful unto you are all beyond those mentioned, so that ye seek them with your wealth in honest wedlock, not debauchery.
WAL-MUHSANAATU  minan-nisaaa-‘i  ‘illaa  maa  malakat ‘ay-maanukum  Kitaaballaahi  ‘alay-kum.  Wa  ‘uhilla  lakum-maa  waraaa-‘a  zaalikum  ‘an-tab-taguu  bi-‘amwaalikum-muhsi-niina  gayra  musaa-fihiin.

Lesson

MUHSANAATUN  - It is plural of Muhsanatun. It means the woman who is proper wife of any man and her husband is present (the married women).

muhsi-niina  – It is plural of muhsinun. That is to say; the man, who makes a woman properly his wife through nuptial knot.

maa  malakat ‘ay-maanukum  – (whom your right hands possess) ma (whom), malakat (came in possession) ‘ay-maanukum (your right hands), possession of right hands means those bondwomen and slaves, who come under control of Muslims as a result of any war etc. Technically the word Milkun yamiin is also used for them.

Now unlawfulness of those women is being described who have already been married with any man. In this situation, they cannot be married someone else until either their husbands would not divorce them or they would not be separated from the nuptial due to the death of their husbands. However, if any woman is already in nuptial with any man and she has come in your possession, then it is lawful to marry her. This situation happens in that manner when any infidel woman has been tied in nuptial knot and the Muslims bring her towards any darus-Salam (a Muslim country) after attacking the dar-ul-harb (a country where God-worshipping is not permissible) and arresting her.

Remember it that the woman who comes in possession of Muslims, caught from dar-ul-harb, it is necessary for her to be lawful after passing at least one period of menstruation. In addition, that woman should not be infidel or idolater, but from the People of the Scripture. Then it has been described that the women, whose unlawfulness has been mentioned above, besides them all remaining women are lawful for you but with following four conditions, which have been prescribed with it:

1.  Ask for the women, that is to say; get willingness properly for nuptial knot from the potential wife.

2.  Accept paying her the amount of Mahr (the money or its value incumbent on the husband).

3.  The purpose should be to make the woman proper your wife, not only for the desire of sensuality.

4.  The marriage should not be hidden but it should be in the gathering of the people and in the presence of the witnesses.




LESSON # 492 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
The Dowry and Mutual Agreement
The Mahr and The Reciprocal Treaty  
Giving Dowry to Women Is Incumbent on Men
When You Marry A Woman, Give Her Dowry 
Payment of Dowry Comes First, Then Mutual Agreement
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –24b of 176, Section –4/24 (Part – 5)
 
And those of whom ye seek content (by marrying them), give unto them their dowries as a duty. And there is no sin for you in what ye do by mutual agreement after the duty (hath been done). Lo! Allah is ever Knower, Wise. 
Famas-tamta’-tum-bihii  min-hunna  fa-‘aatuuhunna  ‘ujuura  hunna  fariizaah.  Wa  laa  junaaha  ‘alay-kum  fiimaa  taraa-zaytum-  bihii  mim-  ba’-dil-  fariizah.  ‘Innallaaha  kaana  ‘Aliiman  Hakiimaa.

Lesson

‘as-tamta’-tum – ‘is-tamtaa’-‘un has been used as infinitive mood, which means ‘to get advantage, to enjoy’. Here it aims living of husband and wife together in solitude for a long time.  

‘ujuura  hunna(their rights), ‘ujuur is plural of ‘ajr, which means wages, retaliation. Here it points towards the Mahr of the women (the dowry to be paid by the husband).

The orders regarding the Mahr (the money or its value resting upon the husband after marriage) have been ordained in this part of the verse. That is to say; any man married a woman and took the benefit from her for a fixed duration, then it is necessary to give that woman completely amount of the Mahr. Moreover, until the woman does not forgive it by herself, the payment of the Mahr is essential. It has been noticed from the hindrance of the word ‘is-tamtaa’-‘un that if one has not got any advantage from the woman and her husband has divorced her, then the husband is not bound to pay the entire amount of dowry. Its complete detail was discussed in Surah Al-Baqra (The Cow). After that, it has been described that in determination of the dowry and its payment, increasing and decreasing the dowry is lawful with mutual agreement between husband and wife. That is to say; after fixing the amount of Mahr, if either the wife decreases the amount of dowry happily or the husband gives more than the specified amount of Mahr willingly to her wife then it is no sin. However, only the condition is that they both ‘husband and wife’ should be willing to do so mutually.

At the end, Allah Almighty directed that He knows the expedience, all kinds of advantages and disadvantages of the human beings and His orders are full of wisdom. Betterment and prosperity for the people is hidden in obedience of His orders in the world and the Hereafter, and if they disobey His orders then there will be failure in the world and disgrace in the Hereafter.

Relationship of husband and wife is a very important matter. Dependence of the continuance of human generation (and perfect growth and education of the children) is connected with the mutual pleasant relation and assistance between both of them. Only their strong relation is the origin of prosperity and well-being of the children. Therefore, it is essential to understand and act upon the laws, which Allah Almighty has described in Holy Qur’an.

It has come to know from this verse that the determination of dowry is a necessary thing for the nuptial and its payment is incumbent on the man.



LESSON # 493 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Marriage With The Believing Maid
Conditions For Marriage With The Maids 
Punishment of Lewdness for Maid is Half Than Free Woman
He Can Marry Any Maid, Who Cannot Afford Free Woman 
Who Fears To Commit Sin, He Can Wed Any Maid
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –25 of 176, Section –4/24 (Part – 5)
 
And whoso is not able to afford to marry free, believing women, let them marry from the believing maids whom your right hands possess. And Allah knoweth best (concerning) your faith. Ye (proceed) one from another, so wed them by permission of their folk, and give unto them their dowries in kindness, they being honest, not debauched nor of loose conduct. Then if when they are honourably married they commit lewdness they shall incur the half of the punishment (prescribed) for free women (in that case). This is for him among you who feareth to commit sin. And to have patience would be better for you. And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.    
Wa  mal-lam  yastati’  min-kum  taw-lan  ‘any-yankihal-Muhsanaatil-Mu’-minaati  fa-mimmaa  malakat  ‘ay-maanu-kum-min-fatayaa-  tikumul- Mu’-minaat.  Wallaahu  ‘a’-lamu  bi-‘iimaanikum.  Ba’-zukum-mim-ba’z.  Fankihuu-hunna  bi-‘izni  ‘ahli-hinna  wa  ‘aatuu-hunna  ‘ujuura-hunna  bil-ma’-ruufi  muhsanaatin  gayra  musaafi-haatinw-wa  laa  muttakhi-zaati  ‘akh-daan.  Fa-‘izaaa  ‘uhsinna  fa-‘in  ‘atayna  bi-faahi-shatin-  fa-‘alay-hinna  nisfu  maa  ‘alal-muhsanaati  minal-‘azaab.  Zaalika  liman  khashiyal-‘anata  minkum.  Wa   ‘an  tasbiruu  khay-rul-lakum.  Wallaahu  Gafuurur-Rahiim. 

Lesson

Muhsanaatun – (free, believing women), its singular is Muhsanah, which has been derived from hasan. Hasan means the fort, as though, Muhsanah is that free, believing and good disposition woman, who kept safe her chastity and honor like a fort.

Powerful and bad people used to make the weak and helpless men, women and children their slaves and bond-maids in many countries of the world before Islam and they used to buy and sell them in the markets like goats and sheep. When Islam came, it brought with itself the message of equality. Nevertheless, it was not too much easy to remove the so much old rules and to change this method of dwelling, of which system the people had been habituated. As far as it is possible, Islam cares for the facilities of the people. The slaves and the bond-maids were already present in the Arab and they were in the worse condition. Particularly the bond-maids were never in any counting. They were badly used to beat black and blue. Allah Almighty provided such rules with which the condition of slaves and bond-maids might be arranged better, and in the process of time, the system of slavery might be finished.     

No bond-maid or slave is existent today in the world and certainly, the wreath of finishing this slavery system is upon the head of Islam. It is the custom of Holy Qur’an in removing the unlawful rules that easy commands are delivered in the beginning, as it seems that Islam desires to keep up this rule. But usually and gradually due to obeying these easy orders, the bad manners come to an end.

Holy Qur’an promoted the dignity of bond-maids in this verse so much that It ordered, “Do not put them making prey only of your bad wishes and intemperance. But wed them and make them your wives. In this order, the seed of removing the custom of bond-maids was sown. It has been commanded, “The person, who is not able to afford to marry any free, believing women, but he feels necessity of any woman then let him marry from the believing maids whom your right hands possess. And they should escape from the unlawful deeds, because safety of Belief is very important and the faith of bond-maids is as much credible as your own.”

It is the result of accepting these orders that today slavery has been finished from the world. The respect of the woman has been established in the society. However, one thing is pending until now that none should keep compressed any one. If it would have been done also as per the orders of Islam, then the matter would have been finalized very earlier.

Allowing wedding the bond-maids and slave-girls, Islam impeded the sinfulness on one side, while at the other hand It determined their grade equal to the free, believing women in the society. Moreover, It put in the rights of their children equal to the rights of the children of free, believing women on the condition that those children are from the bond-maids’ master. In addition, following conditions determined compulsory to marry the bond-maids:

·       Permission of wedding is taken from their masters.

·       Give unto them their dowries as a duty.

·        The bond-maids should be liker of goodness and chastity (Muh-sanaatun).

·       They should not be from the lewd and debauched women (musaafi-haatun).

·       They should also be not of loose conduct muttakhi-zaati  ‘akh-daan”  (secretly loving and beloved).

Allah Almighty says, “This is for him among you who feareth to commit sin. And to have patience would be better for you”. He also commands, “Then if when they are honorably married, they commit lewdness, they shall incur the half of the punishment (prescribed) for free women (in that case)”.


Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif).

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