Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the murdered; the freeman for the freeman, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female

Lessons 179 to 190
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Retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the murdered; the freeman for the freeman, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Proper Worship & Poor-due - Real Righteousness
Verse –177c  of 286, Section – 22 (Part  - 2)

And observe proper worship and pay the poor-due.
Wa  ‘aqaamas-Salaata  wa ‘aataz-Zakaah.


It has been being mentioned for the last two lessons that real and true soul of the righteousness is not that a person observes worship considering any direction sacred and turning his face towards that direction. Moreover the real soul of the righteousness is to correct the beliefs, fair deals, to observe proper worships, to correct the manners and to do the works which have been explained in the Holy Qur’an that is to say the beliefs of the persons should be those for which the Holy Qur’an demands and the person should behave with other people as the Divine’s law guides.

After the faiths and the financial sacrifice the Holy Qur’an has discussed about the other part that is observing proper worship. Out of the acts of worship the greatest worship is physical and financial sacrifice. In the shape of physical worship it is offering the prayer and for the financial worship it is to pay the poor-due. Many excellences of the prayer have been explained in the Holy Qur’an itself on different places as well as it can also be found in a lot of Sayings of the Messenger of God Almighty (May glory, grace, blessings and peace be upon Him).

The Prayer has an important part in the Islamic society. The Prayer stops the human being from the evil and indecency, and keeps away from disobedience. The Prayer is ascension of the Believer. It strengthens the spiritual, moral and social life of the person.
In the financial worships paying the poor-due is the most basic worship. It is obligation on every well-to-do person that he should pay 2.5% out of his wealth once a year to the needy people in the path of Allah Almighty. This Zakah (poor-due) fixed by the Holy Qur’an is so much necessary and useful that if the Muslims pay it regularly then none out of the nation may starve to death. The situation of suicide can not arise due to poverty and unemployment. No body can wander from door to door for begging. Displacement, poverty, helplessness and bad situation will not remain in our society, the entire nation will become strong collectively, peace will increase and the doors will open for development.

Discussion about observing proper worship and paying the poor-due has come in the Holy Qur’an nearly together on each place. If those verses are collected in which the matters and orders about the prayer and Zakah are discussed then its collective quantity is about more than three hundred. It appears that how much important and great are these both obligations in Islam. Without observing proper worship and paying the poor-due regularly it is difficult to think about the Islamic society, though the Muslims who don’t perform this duty about them it is thought as adulterers and deniers, and out of the circle of Islam.

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Keeping The Treaty - Genuine Righteousness
Verse –177d  of 286, Section – 22 (Part  - 2)

And those who keep their treaty when they make one,
Wal-muufuuna  bi-‘ahdihim  izaa   ‘aahaduu,


After discussion about the faiths, affairs and worships now the topic regarding morality, manners and courtesy begins. The most excellent basic characteristic of the human being (to have a good moral character) is that he must keep his treaty, promise and agreement completely when he makes it with any other person. It is very necessary to keep the treaty for his personal life and for those persons with whom he concerns.

There are many forms of the treaty for example; the mankind makes treaty with his Lord Almighty or with the other persons. In our daily lives we have to make a lot of promises and agreements with the God Almighty, brethren, relatives and common people. In other words the treaties mean those responsibilities to which we make necessary upon ourselves to be completed strictly. For instance the God Almighty has taken covenant from us that as He is our Creator and Worshipped so we shall worship only of Him. At the time of trouble/necessity we shall pray only to Him. We shall believe as He is the One (God) and the Authority. Now it is our responsibility not to become the promise breaker.

Likewise we have promised with our brethren that we shall try our best to serve and obey the elders, educate and bring up our children, and correct our deeds. We shall help financially our dears and relatives. We have kept agreement with the common people that we shall perceive, help and care the orphan, the needy, the poor, the wayfarer, the beggar, and the compelled and slaves who are deprived of freedom. Now we should perform completely our responsibilities and not to behave carelessness from them.

Besides this it is also our responsibility that which task has been given in our charge or where we are serving, we should work honestly in exchange of the salary and wages which we get from the employer. It appeared that we have made any covenant in our practical lives with any person out of the countless human beings; we have lifted a very heavy bale of responsibilities over our heads. It is compulsory to complete our all responsibilities and engage ourselves with full honesty and excellent manners.

Today maximum people have become low in this matter. They do not care for the respect of their treaty in both the forms i.e. individually as well as collectively, and do not take the promise as a promise. It has reached the limit that national and countrywide treaties also remain firm till the time to avail against. As soon as anyone gets power, all the written treaties are broken.   

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Patience And Firmness - Actual Righteousness
Verse –177e  of 286, Section – 22 (Part  - 2)

And the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. Such are they who are sincere. And such are the God-fearing.
Was-Saabiriina  fil-ba’saaa-‘i  waz-zarraaa-‘i  wa  hiinal-ba’s.  ‘Ulaaa-‘ikallaziina  sadaquu.  Wa  ‘ulaaa-‘ika  humul-Mutta-quun.


ba’saaa-‘un – (tribulation) it actually relates to the financial miseries.

Az-zarraaa-‘un – ((adversity) it belongs to physical diseases and distresses.

Hiinal-ba’s – (at the time of stress) that is to say during the war in the path of God Almighty.   

Saabiriina – (patients, full of patience) the persons who have capacity of bearing pains, inconvenience, etc., without complaining.

The Holy Qur’an has guided for interpretation of human manners, morality and courtesy, and commanded that these characteristics should be present in the person who has a good moral character. He should keep treaty made by him, accomplish his responsibilities with extremely good manner, pay special attention on the Rights of the God Almighty and the Rights of the devotees/mankind, and during the time of financial distresses, physical diseases and war against the enemies of God Almighty should bear with patience, perseverance and firmness.

In the practical life the human beings have to face different types of troubles, distress, pains and difficulties. Unemployment, adversity, economical misery, starvation and poverty, and likewise all other confusions use to tease the human being every day. The problems of the children’s education and bringing up them, the matters of their marriages and so like other difficult necessities vex him and he use to try and think about these matters day and night. Besides this diseases of various sorts and bodily pains use to besiege him as if today he is ill himself, tomorrow would be laying his any other family member on the bed, their treatment, medicines and cure become his other causes of confusion.

Then danger of enemy, fear of waging the war, possibility of destruction, depravity and ruin, risk of bustle and disorder, these all things keep the human being confused.

This verse ends here in which the Islamic concept of the righteousness has been presented. The persons, who keep the correct belief, sacrifice their property, observe proper worship and pay the poor-due regularly, keep the treaty, and the patient in tribulation and adversity and during the time of stress. Such people are they who are sincere. And such persons are true human beings, the Believers and the God-fearing.  

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Murder - Retaliation Of The Murder
Verse –178a  of 286, Section – 22 (Part  - 2)

O ye who believe! Retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the murdered; the freeman for the freeman, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female.
Yaaa-‘ayyuhallaziina  ‘aa-  manuu kutiba  ‘alaykumul-Qisaasu  fil-qatlaa.  ‘Al-hurru  bil-hurri  wal-‘abdu  bil-‘abdi  wal-‘unsaa  bil-‘unsaa.


Qatlaa – (the murdered persons) particularly those persons who are killed intentionally and purposely by someone.

Qisaasun – (Retaliation) that is to say for taking the revenge against any crime keeping it in equality/balance. According to the Divine’s Law technically the murderer will be killed or if any body has injured to some other person, he will be punished with the wound at the same scale and at the same part of the body.

Kutiba  ‘alaykum – (prescribed for you) the literal meaning of the word kutiba is ‘written’. Due to use of the word ‘alaa with it, now it means ‘prescribed’ and ‘obliged to do under regulations’.

During the times of darkness before Islam it was custom in the Arabians that if a person from any higher family was killed then they used to kill many persons from the family of murderer. If any slave was killed from the higher family, they used to kill any freeman from the family of killer desiring the killer would also be a slave because they considered the respect of higher family’s slave was equal to the freeman of a lower family; also it was more than that. So instead of killing the slave any freeman was to be murdered as revenge. Then if any female was killed out of the higher family by a female from the lower family, the heirs of the murdered female used to kill any male of that lower family leaving the murderer female. Because they thought that their female was equal to the male of lower family.

The Holy Qur’an finished this racial distinction and difference, and commanded that being the human beings all the persons are equal, their lives are alike, either any person is rich or poor, noble or mean, scholar or illiterate, young or old, healthy or ailing. If any female kills any male then only that woman should be killed. Because her life is equal to that male’s life. If any slave is the killer then only he will be murdered. If any mean person has murdered then in the retaliation that mean person will be killed only, not any other person.   

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
According To Usage & Kindness –
Retaliation Of The Murder    
Verse –178b  of 286, Section – 22 (Part  - 2)

And for him who is forgiven somewhat by his the (victims heir’s injured) brother, prosecution according to usage and payment unto him in kindness. This is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord, He who transgresseth after this will have a painful doom.
Faman ‘ufi-ya  lahuu  min  ‘akhiihi  shay-‘un-  fattibaa-‘um-bil-ma’-ruufi  wa  ‘adaaa-‘un  ‘ilayhi  bi-‘ihsaan.  Zaalika  takhfiifum-mir-Rabbikum  wa  rahmah.  Fama-ni’-tadaa ba’-da zaalika  fala-huu  ’azaabun  ‘aliim. 


Min  ‘akhiihi – (by his brother) it signifies towards the heir of the murdered. To excite the feeling of love he has been addressed with the word ‘brother’.

Ittibaa-‘um-bil-ma’-ruufi – (prosecution according to usage) its purpose is that if the heirs of the murdered forgive the retaliation of the murder, and agree to take the price of blood then it is the responsibility of the murderer to pay according to usage full reasonable payment with kindness, mercy and righteousness.

We have discussed in the previous lesson that which principle of the natural equation between the entire human beings has been fixed by the God Almighty that is “murder is in retaliation to the murder”. Now it is being commanded that the heirs of the murdered can forgive to the killer or they can give up after getting the blood money from the killer or they can also lessen some of the price of blood. The killer can escape from the punishment of ‘to be killed’ in these conditions.

Then it is ordered that if the heirs of the murdered agree to forgive the murderer and take the blood money then they should not demand too much heavy amount which would be out of the reach of the killer. They should not narrow him intentionally coming into anger or they should not begin to demand the entire blood money after forgiving the price of blood. Moreover they should receive proper and reasonable amount according to usage.

After urging the heirs of the murdered now the killer is being emphasized that he should also remit this amount very elegantly and beautifully. He should not try to prolong purposely, to grow intricacy or displeasure. The God Almighty has imposed perfect physical punishment of murder to the killer along with this method of reduction in punishment. Allah Almighty is the Merciful upon the mankind. With His Kindness He has reduced the punishment but if even then any person opposes or disobeys these laws and steps out of these limitations then The God Almighty will punish him painful.

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
The Life Is In The Retaliation Of Murder
Verse –179  of 286, Section – 22 (Part  - 2)

And there is life for you in retaliation, O men of understanding, that ye may ward off (evil).
Wa  lakum  fil-Qisaasi  Ha-yaatuny-yaaa-‘ulil-‘albaabi  la-‘allakum  tattaquun.


Apparently it seems that punishment to kill the murderer as retaliation of murder is much heavy and strict, and it is thought that punishing the killer another life is destroyed intentionally. But if it is checked deeply an account about this command’s advisability and philosophy then this fact will be cleared that with it another life is not ruined but the life is gotten.

For example if the punishment of the murder is not fixed murder as retaliation then resultantly value of the human life would not remain. The cruel persons will murder fearless and without hesitation. Because they will know that they will be free after paying some penalty or bearing some imprisonment. Like this the human life will become much cheaper as it was present in the Arab practically during the time of illiteracy.

If the punishment of the murder isn’t murder, every wealthy person will kill the others on also customary matters and paying the penalty, he could be got free himself. But if according to the Islamic method the punishment of murder is fixed as murder means that the lives of all human beings are given equal respect, value of any life is fixed as the life of murderer then quantity of the murders will become very less, because they will know that if any one is killed by them, they won’t be able to get free paying the penalty. And he will be sentenced for the murder. In these situations the incidents of killing will stop and the people will find themselves safe. Though if the punishment of murder is not killing, the lives of the people will be destroyed but while the punishment of killing is killing, the lives of people are safe. This is  fil-Qisaasi  Ha-yaatun (there is life in the retaliation).

The Law of murder in retaliation is the law of justice and equality. It is the best guarantor of discipline, truthfulness and moderateness in all aspects of human life. So that none may tyrannize any other person and the rights of weak and strong become equal. While this law will be followed for some times, its soul will grow in the whole nation and the constitutionalism will become important part of life for mutual national peace.

Islam has fixed apparently severe punishments for the crimes but looking carefully, in fact those crimes deserve even more severe punishments. Less punishment will be cause to make the crime minor. Secondly purpose to punish severely is to stop the crimes not to make the punishment only a funny and enjoyable thing. Now a day this very is happening that the punished criminals commit more crimes. Neither they are corrected, nor do others take it as warning.                                                                                                                                                                   

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
The Testament For Property
Verse –180  of 286, Section – 22 (Part  - 2)

It is prescribed for you, when death approacheth one of you, if he leaves wealth, that he should bequeath unto parents and near relatives in kindness. (This is) a duty for all those ward off (evil).  
Kutiba  ‘alaykum  ‘izaa  hazara
‘ahadakumul-mawtu  ‘in-  taraka  khay-ranil-wasiyyatu  lil-waalidayni  wal-‘aqrabiina  bil-ma’-ruuf.  Haqqan  ‘alal-Muttaqiin. 


Khay-ra – (Wealth) the meanings of this word are betterment, welfare and deliverance. It is also used for pure wealth in the Holy Qur’an.

‘Al-wasiyyatu – (Bequeath, testament, making a will) its literal meaning are ‘to order’ and ‘to request’. According to the Divines law it means ‘those instructions which are arranged to make (a will) by the person who is at the death’s door for his/her followers/heirs, which are completed after his/her death. The religious scholars have mentioned many kinds of ‘Testaments’:

1.   Some testaments are proper (Waajib) for example paying the poor-due, security safeguard (trust) or the will to return the loans which is extreme necessary and duty to be completed.

2.   Some wills are Mustahib, likewise to bequeath for any good work or to give something to any that relative who can not get any part of hereditary/inheritance according to the Laws of Will.

3.   Some are only Mubaah that is to say to bequeath for any legal issue.

4.  Some are those which are forbidden to be completed as per the commands of the Holy Qur’an as if any body bequeaths for any unlawful deed which is prohibited to be done.

5.   Some Wills are called Maw-quuf. It is necessary to regard some limitations for this type of Will to be accomplished, for instance if any person bequeaths for more than one third (1/3) part of his property. Its execution depends upon dismissal of the other heirs. Some questions have been mentioned in the coming next verses about the matters of bequeathing. If we keep them also in front then all the matters will be solved.

There were Islamic commands mentioned in the previous verses regarding murder. Now instructions about the property/wealth of the dead are being discussed. On another place in the Holy Qur’an the shares of all the heirs and the rightful have been fixed. So the testament will be examined in the light of those shares. However it may be bequeathed out of the third part of the property.

Bil-ma’-ruuf  - (According to usage) this word has already used earlier. ‘Urf is its matter, that is to say the known matter like this, usually that would be considered as righteousness and betterment. So its one translation may be ‘according to the customs’. Fixing its condition in the Will all those badness have been stopped which a bequeathed could do due to being biased or displeasure that he might give someone more than his right and the other’s right might be lost. 

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Change In The Will
Verse –181 & 182  of 286, Section – 22 (Part  - 2)

181.  Then whoso changeth (the will) after he hath heard it-the sin thereof is only upon those who change it. Lo! Allah is Hearer, Knower.

182.  But he who feareth from a testator some unjust or sinful clause, and maketh peace between the parties, (it shall be) no sin for him. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. 
181.  Famam-baddalahuu  ba’-da  maa  sami-‘ahuu  fa-‘innamaaa  ‘is-muhuu  ‘alallaziina  yubad-diluunah.  ‘Innallaaha  Samii-‘un  ‘Aliim.

182.  Faman khaafa  mim-muusin-janafan  ‘aw  ‘isman-  fa-‘aslaha  baynahum  falaaa ‘isma  ‘alayh.  ‘Innallaaha Gafuurur-Rahiim.


In this verse those persons have been warned who were present near the person who was at the death’s door at the time of bequeath, that if they will make any changes in the Will of the person who has died, then its sin will be upon them. It is possible that some people may try to make changes in the Will for their own benefits and then producing the changed Will may complete their wishes. The ignorant persons who don’t know the facts will apparently consider it error of the person who has bequeathed or the person who commanded decision on the Will that he has disinherited to a rightful person. This verse has cleared the compulsion of the both persons i.e. the person who has bequeathed or the person who commanded decision on the Will. And it has been told that the real criminals are those persons who have given false evidence and wrong testimony, and changed the testament (Will), gave the wrong statements and provided liar proofs.

To change the Will there is only one form mentioned lawful according to this verse that if any person feels that the testator has disinherited someone    unjust or sinful, and the bequest has been distributed unlawfully, guided against the Law of Lord Almighty or bequeathed with sin and unjust, for instance he has bequeathed to spend the property for the purpose which is legally forbidden, now in these forms the witness and the judge are allowed to advice the heirs correctly, make peace between the parties, and get the Will be changed.
It shall not be sin for them. So it is found that the real thing is the righteousness and act of sincerity.

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Prescription Of The Fasting
Verse –183  of 286, Section – 23 (Part  - 2)

O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, even as it was prescribed for those before you, that ye may ward off (evil)- 
Yaaa-‘ayyu-hallaziina  ‘aamanuu  kutiba  ‘alay-kumus-Siyaamu  kamaa kutiba  ‘alallaziina  min-qablikum  la-‘alla-kum  tatta-quun.


‘As-Siyaamu – (act of Fasting, abstain from food and drink for a particular time) like Sawm (Fast) it has also infinitive mood. As per Divine’s law of religion act of Fasting means to abstain from drinking, eating and sexual friendship or enjoyment with effect from the dawn to sunset.

Fasting is prescribed for the Muslims during the month of Rama-zaan. In the Sayings of the Holy Messenger (may glory, grace, blessings and peace be upon Him) it has been emphasized again and again to escape from the sins at the time the fast is kept, that is to say back biting, indecent talks, shamelessness, bad tempering etc.

It has been mentioned in the physiology that the best treatment to remove the physical diseases is Fasting. In addition to it self control and military life grows in the human being. As though, the Fasting is spiritual remedy on one side, and to correct the physical powers and to cure the diseases on the other side. 

  ‘Alallaziina  min-qablikum – (the people before you) the The Fasting has been found in each religion and nation of the world in any shape. It had very special importance in the Divine’s law of the religions of Prophets Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets (peace be upon them). So signifying towards the ancestors the God Almighty commanded that ‘Fasting is prescribed for you, even as it was prescribed for those before you’. Intention is that the person who keeps the Fast should abstain to complete his lawful and physical wishes till a particular time.

La-‘alla-kum  tatta-quun – (so that you may ward off (evil)). The God Almighty has also commanded even about the purpose of Fasting that is to say the Fasting is hence prescribed, so that the filth and dirt of the spirit may be removed, the fear of God and abstinence is grown. As physical health becomes fit due to abstinence from the use of harmful things likewise the spiritual ability of the human being develops due to abstinence from all the injurious to spirit and morality habits. This characteristic is called ‘Fear of God’ and piety. Second purpose of the Fast as mentioned in this Section is gratefulness which will be discussed later in the forthcoming verses.

The Fasting is the best useful recipe for health and spirit, individually as well as collectively. We should perform this duty extremely with honor and punctuality. Apparently there is much labour and difficulty in Fasting but if we see its advantages then we shall feel that these difficulties have no position comparing to its benefits.      

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Concession For Sick And Passenger
Verse –184a  of 286, Section – 23 (Part  - 2)

(Fast) a certain number of days; and (for) him who is sick among you, or on a journey, (the same) number on other days;
‘Ayyaamam-ma’duudaat.  Faman-  kaana  minkum- mariizan  ‘aw  ‘alaa safarin-  fa-‘iddatum-min  ‘ayyaamin  ‘ukhar.


‘Ayyaamam-ma’-duudaat – (a certain number of days) it has been mentioned in this part of the verse that the Muslims would have to keep the Fast for a certain number of days for example the month of Ramadan during each year, some times which have 29 days ands some times 30 days.

Fixation of this length of time was very necessary for organization of the nation so that no body may change the quantity of the days for keeping or leaving the Fast according to his will. Moreover the Fasting is prescribed for the entire Believers that they all should keep the Fast on the same particular time and for the same particular duration to perform this blessed prescription. One advantage of the month of Ramadan is also that fasts come in different seasons and every person gets chance of fasting in the summer and the winter.

One aspect comes out of it that number of prescribed fasts is not to much long. It neither is that the fasting be kept for the entire year and nor for half or one forth of the year but only one month is prescribed in a year.

Time and duration was determined. But some concession was given to the people, who can not fulfill its limitations and conditions. Whenever these people get rid of their compulsions, they can keep fasting left of the month of Ramadan during any other month.

First of all the persons have been exempted who are ill and unable to keep the Fast due to their illness. There are different aspects of the illness. Moreover besides this the difference of seasons and age also effects. Here the illness aims which creates problem to keep fasting and that illness would be too much severe that the person can not keep the fast. Divine’s law of religion didn’t tell the name of illness but it has been left on the sincerity and truthfulness of the Muslims and on the opinion of a skillful doctor.

Besides the patients, the travelers have also been given concession. These both types of the people i.e. the patient and the traveler will have to complete their number of fasting during any other time during the year. But they should try to complete the left over fasts as soon as possible. Nobody knows that when the life and the time will end.

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Ransom Of Not Fasting
Verse –184b  of 286, Section – 23 (Part  - 2)

And for those who can afford it there is a ransom; the feeding of a man in need. But whose doeth good of his own accord, it is better for him:
Wa  ‘alal-laziina  yutii-quunahuu  fidya-tun  ta-‘aamu  miskiin.  Faman- tatawwa-‘a  khay-ran  fahuwa  khayrul-lah.


Yutii-quunahuu aims the persons who need to spend extraordinary strength for keeping the Fast and to bear the labour of Fast and it becomes very difficult for them, for example the old people, the pregnant and the mothers for sucking their young, weak and feeble persons etc.

Man- tatawwa-‘a – (whose person does good of his own accord, willingly)

It has been discussed about concession in this part of the verse for those people who have to bear much difficulty and trouble for keeping the Fast. They have been commanded that due to leaving the fasting they should use to feed bellyful any beggar or necessitious person two times daily and the standard of the food should be the same as usually remains their own.

Then it is said that actual ransom of leaving one fast is to feed two times to any poor person for one day. But if any person increases the quantity of the food that is to say if he feeds more than one poor person or keeps the standard up of the food to higher level, then it is much better for him. He will be rewarded surely for this goodness and kindness. His next world will also be dressed.

Islam emphasizes for alms, charity, liberality, kind behavior and good conduct every time, every where and in every condition but during the month of Ramadaan its importance increases. So before or on ending of this month the Alms “Fitr” is paid. That is also an important ring of this chain so that none of the Muslims would remain hungry.

The Messenger of God Almighty Muhammad (may grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) was very much liberal and generous. But it has been known from His (may grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) Sayings that He (may grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) used to become too much generous and liberal likewise fast dust storm.

We should follow the foot-prints of our Great Leader and Guide the Last Prophet of God Almighty (may grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) and take part in liberality and generosity surpassing one another. Perception of hunger of the hungry and poverty of the poor will increase if someone keeps the fast. So it is necessary that this perception should remain alive during prosperity and independence, and the poor deserving persons should not be forfeited from the help and support of the prosperous people.        

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Blessings Of The Fast
Verse –184c  of 286, Section – 23 (Part  - 2)

And that ye fast is better for you if ye did but know.
Wa  ‘an- tasuumuu  khayrul-lakum  ‘inkuntum  ta’-lamuun.


In this part of the verse importance, good and blessings of the Fasting have been discussed and told that although any reasonable excuse may compel the human being to postpone keeping the fast or pay the ransom, even then the advantages and blessings for keeping the fast which may be gotten only during the month of Ramadaan when someone will keep the fast. Those benefits can not be achieved from expiation or to be kept the postponed fast (kafaarah or Qazaa’). So it has been admonished that if you understand the virtues, advisability and philosophy of the fast then it is better for you to keep the fast and do not try un-necessarily to pick up the advantage from permission of the ransom etc.

Which prescription of the fast, its philosophy and necessary commands have been explained in this regard by the God Almighty in the previous verses of this Section, their summary is being presented again here as under:

1.   Fasting is prescribed for every adult Muslim male and female as it is one pillar of Islam out of five pillars. Carelessness, laziness and refusal from it are very big sins. The religious lawyers have fixed infidelity to the refusal from the prescription of the fast.

2.   The fast was also prescribed for the previous nations; the Islam has not invented any new thing.

3.   Purpose of the fast is to grow purity of the soul, abstinence, fear of God Almighty and devotion in the mankind.

4.   Number of the fasts is fixed that is to say during the month of Ramadaan which some times become of 29 days and sometimes 30 days.   

5.   If any person is sick in the month of Ramadaan and not able to complete the numbers of fasts then that person is permitted to keep the remaining fasts whenever he becomes healthy.

6. If any person is on journey during these days, he also can complete his fasts during other days except Ramadaan whenever he is not in journey.

7.   Quantity of the Ransom is fixed equal to feed a beggar for two times. However if any person keeps the fast being entitled these concessions and takes part in the righteousness with his pleasure, that is also much better for him.

The narration of the fasting and its questions has not yet completed. It will remain in flow in this Section. May Allah Almighty bestow us the correct knowledge and deeds, understanding and admonishing.

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English byMarmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif).

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