Sunday, November 23, 2014

O Israelites! Remember My Favour Wherewith I Favoured You and How I Preferred You to (all) Creatures

Lessons 60 to 70

Note:  For reciting Lesson-wise separately, please visit:
BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Preference to The Children Of Israel
Verse – 47 of 286, Section – 6 (Part  - 1)
O Children of Israel! Remember
My favour wherewith I favoured
you and how I preferred you to
(all) creatures.
Yaa-Baniii- ‘Israaa-‘iilaz-kuruu ni’-mati-yal-latiii ‘an-‘amtu ‘alaykum wa ‘annii faz-zaltukum  ‘alal-‘aalamiin.

Faz-zaltukum – (preferred you), this word has come out from the word Fazal which means preference. Aim of giving preference over the entire world is that the Israelite remained the most excellent over all the communities and there was none peer of them. However, when they left the Truth misled the Divine’s Law and opposed the last Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings upon Him), then that preference went away and they earned anger of the God Almighty. Destruction became their fate, and the Muslim nation was given the title of “Well Nation”.

‘Alal-‘Aalamiin – (over all creatures) here ‘Aalamiin means all the nations of the world.
There was a time when the children of Israel were preferred to all the people of this world. When the other nations were going astray in the darkness and depravity, were involved in infidelity and worshipping of Idols, were lustful in corruption and heresy, then there was only the nation Israelite who had concept of Oneness of God and they had the Heavenly Guide Book. What would be the preference more than this?

Slowly and gradually these people went astray from the straight path due to their weaknesses and corruptions, and left behind the Heavenly Guidance. So the God Almighty preaches them on the point, “Admit your real religion in its corrected form and come on the straight path.”

It was difficult to get faith and Fear of God (piety) with the source of patience and worship. So easy and simple manner of it has been explained and that is gratitude. God Almighty reminds the children of Israel His favours, gifts and honours which He had bestowed upon them from time to time and discloses also their evil doings. It is the nature of human being that he begins to love with his benefactor and generous. So the God Almighty warns them about His favours, and preaches them for the straight path.

It is the sign of warning for the people of the entire world that children of Israel fell down in the well of calamity of God after getting so much higher rank of preference. We should get advice from this condition of them and try to keep away from those acts which became reason of their depravity, ruin and destruction. 

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
What Will Be Used On The Day Of Resurrection?
Verse – 48 of 286, Section – 6 (Part  - 1)
And guard yourselves against a
Day when no soul will in aught
avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will compensation be received from it, nor will they be helped.
WattaquuYawmal-laa tajzii nafsun ‘an-nafsin- shay-‘anw-wa laa yuqbalu minhaa shafaa-‘atunw-wa laa yu’-khazu minhaa ‘ad-lunw-wa laa  hum yun-saruun.   

Yawmun – (Day) means the Day of Resurrection. It is necessary that Faith on the Day of Resurrection or Rewards and punishment on one’s acts should be present in the religion for leaving the worldly amusements and acting good deeds so that the people leave their evils and bad acts due to the concept of that Day and become of the good disposition for the hope of rewards. With the passage of time Belief on the Day of Resurrection had ended from the hearts of Israelite so they are being admonished for the Day of Judgment.

‘Ad-lun – (revenge, reward, exchange, equality, accuracy, rivalry, contest or balance) if remuneration or compensation is given for any thing, that is considered equal to the capital. So the word ‘ad-lun is used as the exchange. It also means justice or equity because on doing justice between the two persons it becomes equity.

It was the concept the Jews, “Our forefathers were Prophets (peace be upon them). On their recommendations our all sins will be forgiven. So we shall not be put in agony.” The God Almighty commands that their faith was wrong. The criminal would have to be punished for his sins.

Usually there are four forms to set free the criminal:
•        Any other person admits that the crime was done by him (instead of the criminal).
•        Set the criminal free on anyone’s recommendations.
•        Let him off by paying some compensation (cash).
•        Get him free violently.

There is no any form out of the above which may be used by the sinners on the Day of Judgment.

In the Hereafter each person will think about himself only. No body will recommend any other without permission of the God Almighty. He will not accept any cash, compensation, wealth or property because He has no need of wealth and property. There is no any power in the heavens and earth that may compel the God Almighty and set free the sinners from God, the Most High.

He rendered null and void this faith of the Jews explaining the speech of the verse under discussion and preached them to come back towards the straight path having fear of the Day of Resurrection.

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Tremendous Trial of Israelite
Verse – 49 of 286, Section – 6 (Part  - 1)
And (remember) when We did deliver you from Pharaoh’s folk, who were afflicting you with dreadful torment, slaying your sons and sparing your women. And that was a tremendous trial from your Lord.
Wa ‘iz najjay-naakum-min –Aali- Fir-‘awna yasuumuuna- kum suuu-‘al-‘azaabi yuzab-bihuuna ‘abnaaa-‘akum wa yas-tahyuuna nisaaa-‘akum.  Wa fii zaalikum balaaa-‘um-mir-Rabbikum ‘aziim.

Aali- Fir-‘awna – (Folk, people, near relatives, religion fellows, servants and children of Pharaoh) Pharaoh was the title of the King of Egypt. Usually the people imagine a king of the Egypt who was named as Pharaoh. In fact it was not the name of a person. Moreover it was the surname of all the kings of Egypt as the title of the king of China was ‘Khaqaan’ (Emperor, Sovereign) and the King of Rome was surnamed as ‘Caesar’.

The Prophet Joseph (Peace be upon Him) brought and populated the Israelite in the Egypt. They lived in the Egypt hundreds of the years and their population reached in hundred thousands. The King of Egypt made them his slaves and treated them extremely disgracefully and contemptibly.

Once, the King dreamed at night. He gathered the soothsayers and asked them to interpret his dream in the morning, “I have seen a fire coming from the Temple of Jerusalem. It has besieged the Egypt and begun to burn the ‘Qabtees’ (Egyptians) choosing one by one”. Listening to it the soothsayers told the King that a child would bear in the Israelite that would become the cause of your death and fall of the Emperor.

The Pharaoh collected all the nurses and midwives of the country and ordered them, “Whenever any ‘son’ comes into the world by birth in the Israelite, kill him at once. However the girls be left alive.” Due to the orders of the King thousands of the sons of Israelite were killed. After all, the leaders of the Egypt thought, “If all the Israelite are killed in this manner, who will serve us?”
Listening to it, the Pharaoh commanded, “Carry on killing process for one year and stop it for the next year continuously”. The year in which killing process was postponed, in that year Prophet Aaron (peace be upon Him) was born and in the year killing process was in force, during that period Prophet Moses (Peace be upon Him) came in this world but the God, the Most High saved his life with His sound policy and he could not be killed.

The above mentioned verse points out towards this event. The nation of Pharaoh had put the children of Israel in to much difficult calamity and labour. Finally the God Almighty set them free from these troubles through His Prophet Moses (Peace be upon Him). 

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Drowning The Folk Of Pharaoh
Verse – 50 of 286, Section – 6 (Part  - 1)
And when We brought you through the sea and rescued you, and drowned the folk of Pharaoh in your sight.
Wa ‘iz faraqnaa bikumul-bahra fa-‘anjay-naakum wa ‘agraq-naaa ‘Aala- Fir-‘awna wa ‘antum tanzuruun.

Al-bahra – (Sea) here aim for al-bahra is the Red Sea (Arabian Gulf). It is also called as deep sea. Through this sea the Egypt meets with Syria and Siena. The Israelite entered in Peninsula Siena after crossing this Sea and got freedom from Pharaoh and folks of Egypt.  

Faraqnaa bikumul-bahra - (We brought you through the Sea). It is pointed towards the event in this sentence that when the children of Israel started crossing the Red Sea, the God Almighty made for them the way to cross the sea. It was Miracle of the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) that when He beat His stick on the water of sea, the earth in the sea became dry and now there was a path for Israelite to cross the sea. As per historians this event was occurred nearly1447 B.C.
Wa ‘antum tanzuruun – (And you were looking). The children of Israel are being told that they had seen with their own sight about the infamy and disgraced death of their greatest cruel and despotic king.

The Israelite bore cruelties of their tyrant kings of Egypt for many years. After all they devised that they should leave the Egypt and go to their ancestor’s native country Syria and Palestine under the supervision of the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him). Because the government of Egypt was not agreeing to permit them leave the Egypt, so they started their journey at night. They had fear about following the Egyptian government, grief on leaving their homes and utter darkness of night. Due to fear and confusion they forgot the straight path.

On the other side the Pharaoh had known that the children of Israel had run away. He followed with his Army and reached near to them. Now the Israelite were entirely helpless. In front of them there was sea in the east and behind them a great Egyptian Army. The Israelite became much confused as they had been surrounded. At that time Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) beat His stick in the sea according to the command of God Almighty. The sea was cracked and the dry land came out. Caravan of the Israelite crossed the sea. Mean while the Army of Pharaoh reached there. They saw dried path and dropped down. But they were even in the middle of the way that the water became in a level and met mutually itself. The Pharaoh drowned along with his Army. The children of Israel looked the show of drowning their enemy helplessly with their sights. Above mentioned verse signifies towards this tale.

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Worship Of A Calf
Verse – 51 of 286, Section – 6 (Part  - 1)
And when We did appoint for
Moses forty nights (of solitude),
and then ye chose the calf, when
he had gone from you, and ye
were wrongdoers.
Wa ‘iz waa-‘adnaa Muusaaa ‘arba-iina lay-latan-  summat-takhaztu-mul-‘ijla mim- ba’-dihii wa ‘antum zaalimuun.

Muusaaa – (Moses) was a great, glorious and favourite Prophet (peace be upon Him) of God Almighty. Mostly Commentators of the religion imagine that the word ‘Moses’ is derived from Hebrew language. Some scholars say that it is an Egyptian word which means child or son. Father’s name of the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) was Imran. His sister’s name was Mary and Brother Aaron. They both were elder to Him. The Time of Moses (peace be upon Him) is stated as 1500 B.C. or 1300 B.C. He made the children of Israel free from the slavery of Pharaoh and his folk.

In this verse the God, the Most High narrated the events of Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) and His nation which were happened after the crossing of Red Sea. When Moses (peace be upon Him) reached near the Mountain Sinai (famous for the conversing of Moses and God Almighty) after crossing the sea, God Almighty commanded Him to worship for forty nights on the Mountain Sinai (Koh-i-Tuur). Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) went for worship on the Mountain Sinai obeying this order and detailed His brother Aaron to look after the nation in His absence.

After the departure of Moses (peace be upon Him) obstinacy and liberty grew in the nation (children of Israel). In the presence of even Aaron (peace be upon Him) they did not incline towards the God-worshipping. It is known as they did not forget even then the Idol-worshipping of the Egyptians. They were simpleton. Out of them a conjurer named ‘Saamri’ (who was a story teller) took advantage of their weakness (simpleton-ness) and made a calf of the gold. Whenever it blew, a meaningless sound came out of the mouth of calf. That sound was wonderful for them, although the children may get different sounds from the customary toys of animals. All the children of Israel started worshipping the calf except a few persons out of them.

The Prophet Aaron (peace be upon Him) made them much to understand but they did not turn to God-worshipping. As though they could not remain on the straight path in the forty days’ absence of Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him). And leaving the God Almighty started worshipping the calf which was lifeless and false. It was their much bigger weakness and till today some nations are involved in this mistake.   

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Announcement of Pardon
Verse – 52 of 286, Section – 6 (Part  - 1)
Then, even after that, We pardoned you in order that ye might give thanks.
Summa ‘afawnaa ‘ankum-mim- ba’-di zaalika  la-‘allakum  tash-kuruun.

Tash-kuruun – (ye might give thanks). This word is derived from the word Shukar. Shukar means thanks, gratitude and a just appreciate. Aim of the Shukar in Islam is a just appreciation for the favours of God Almighty by the human being. The person should use His favours and grants in a right and sound manner. He should not do unvalued or be thankless.

In the previous verse it was stated that the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) went on the Mountain Sinai (Koh-i-Toor) for obeying the Order of the God Almighty so that He may do worship of God there and bring Guide Book from the God for His nation. After residing there thirty days He was given command to live more ten days and delayed in coming back soon.

In the absence of the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) a conjurer named ‘Saamri’ (who was a wicked story teller) made a calf of gold, a meaningless sound used to come out of its mouth. He told the children of Israel, “this calf is the worshipped of you and the Moses (peace be upon Him) so you should worship it”. Besides a few persons all the nation bowed in front of the calf and began to worship it with extremely lowness.

When the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) returned from the Mount of Sinai, He saw that all the children of Israel have been misled. He filled with fury and threw those tablets which He brought with Him and on which the Orders from the God Almighty were written, and asked His brother Aaron furiously. Aaron (peace be upon Him) stated the entire story and told His helplessness.

Finally the God Almighty ordered, “Throw the calf into the sea and kill each other because it is the only way to accept your repentance,” so two thousand persons were killed in a day. At last the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) begged from the God, the Most High and they received the command of forgiveness.

It is the mercy and grace of the God Almighty that the mankind commits mistakes but the God Almighty overlooks from them. Whenever the human being admits his negligence and promises to abstain from evils in future, the God Almighty forgives. If any person does not admit His kindness upon even it then it will be infinite thankless and unvalued, and this crime is not forgivable. 

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
The Scripture And The Criterion
Verse – 53 of 286, Section – 6 (Part  - 1)
And when We gave unto Moses the Scripture and the Criterion (of right and wrong) that ye might be led aright.
Wa ‘iz ‘aataynaa Muusal- Kitaaba  wal-Furqaana  la-‘al-lakum  tahtaduun.

Al-Furqaan – the Orders, Commands or Mandates which separate, disunite or disjoin. This word is derived from the word faraqa to divide or distinguish; the Holy Books (as distinguished or separating truth from falsehood). The Commentators of the Religion have different sayings about Furqaan:

•        Those Miracles which were bestowed to the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) from the God, the Most High.

•        The victory and overcoming which was resulted against the Army of Pharaoh to the children of Israel.

•        The Jews intend also from this word, the verbal preaching which was revealed upon the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) besides Torah.

•        Al-Furqaan is the name of Holy Qur’aan also and other Heavenly Books are called Furqaan too because these Orders differentiate between the Right and Wrong.

In this verse al-Furqaan intends towards the Orders and Commands due to which true and false, right and wrong, and goodness and evil may be separated from each other and there may not remain any accommodation for doubt and suspicion. 

When the repentance of the children of Israel was approved, the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) went again to the Mount Sinai (Koh –i – Toor) and brought a lot of Orders from the God Almighty which were written on the tablets. Collection of those Orders is called Torah.

God Almighty is reminding the children of Israel His Favors in this verse. He commands them, “You disobeyed My Orders. You started worshipping the Calf but I forgave you with My kindness. Then I bestowed My Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) a Book which had complete Divine’s Law and a Guide (Torah) so that you may pass your lives according to its instructions. With the help of that book you might distinguish between just and absurd, lawful and unlawful, good and bad.”

It is known from this verse that the Holy Book revealed from the God Almighty and the balance between just and absurd is a great blessing for the human being. The guidance may only be gotten from it and only those persons are successful who act upon the Holy Book of God Almighty, and take guidance for balance between true and false. It is necessary for us that we should correct our words and deeds in the light of Holy Qur’aan and Sayings of the last Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon Him), grow virtue of distinguishing between true and false and don’t recognize equal good and bad. We should keep every time distinction between lawful and unlawful in front of us. 

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Punishment Due to Ascribing Plurality to God
Verse – 54 of 286, Section – 6 (Part  - 1)
And when Moses said unto his people: O my people! Ye have wronged yourselves by your choosing of the calf (for worship), so turn in penitence to your Creator, and kill (the guilty) yourselves. That will be best for you with your Creator and He will relent toward you. Lo! He is the Relenting, the Merciful.
Wa ‘iz qaala Muusaa li-Qawmihii  yaa-qawmi  ‘innakum zalamtum  ‘anfusakum  bit-tikhaazikumul-‘ijla  fatuubuuu  ‘ilaa  Baari-‘ikum faqtuluuu  ‘anfusakum.  Zaalikum khay-rul-lakum ‘inda  Baari-‘ikum  Fataaba ‘alaykum ‘Innahuuu Huwat-Tawwaa-bur-Rahiim.

Li-Qawmihii – (unto his people, to His nation), in this verse aim from li-Qawmihii is those particular persons who prostrated the calf supposing their worshipped. 

Zalamtum – (you have wronged, you have lost) it means that they involved again in plurality leaving the Oneness of God Almighty. How might be more than it loss of a person over him?

Faqtuluuu  ‘anfusakum – So kill (the guilty) yourselves. It signifies towards the people who did not prostrate the calf they should kill them who prostrated it. The scholars have commented that there were three groups in the children of Israel:
•        Those persons who did not prostrate the calf and forbade the others not to prostrate it. They were pious persons. 
•        Those people who prostrated.
•        It was a group who did not prostrate themselves but they did not forbid others from prostrating.

So the pious people were commanded to kill them who prostrated. In fact the after wards two groups deserved the punishment.

Khay-rul-lakum – it is best for you. It aims that when you will kill one an other, you will become sacred from the filth of sin and will get absolution and freedom.

In this verse God Almighty tells the children of Israel, “You could not remain on the straight path in the absence of the Prophet (peace be upon Him), involved in plurality and idol worshipping. You have lost much due to this deed of yours. Now it is its punishment that you kill each other yourselves. When the children of Israel admitted the order of God Almighty, then they were relented and the God, the Most high accepted their penitence. Success in this world and on the Day of Resurrection for the human being is in obeying the Orders of God Almighty wishing either he knows or doesn’t know its philosophy and advisability. And if with error, forgetfulness or un-intentionally he has mistaken, then he should be ready every time for acceptance and correctness.  

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
An Other Arrogance Of Israelite
Verse – 55 of 286, Section – 6 (Part  - 1)
And when ye said: O Moses! We will not believe in thee till we see Allah manifestly; and even while ye gazed the lightning seized you.
Wa ‘iz  qultum  yaa-Muusaa lan-nu’-mina laka hattaa naral-laaha jahratan- fa-‘akhazat-kumus-saa-‘iqatu wa ‘antum tanzuruun.

Naraa – (we will see). The Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) brought chosen seventy persons from the children of Israel on the Mountain Sinai for listening to the Speech of God Almighty. When they listened to the Speech they said, “O Moses! We do not believe on listening from the veil. Show us with eyes.

‘Akhazat-kumus-saa-‘iqatu – (the lightning seized you). The children of Israel were falsifying the speech of Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) and claiming that they would see the God openly otherwise they would not believe on Him. So they were punished as the lightning fell suddenly upon them from which their eyes were dazzled and their eyesight made unable to see anything.

It has been discussed earlier that when the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) went on the Mountain Sinai for getting Guide Book (Torah) for the children of Israel, then they started worship of the calf in His absence and involved in plurality of God. When He returned, it was announced by the God Almighty to kill them as punishment of plurality. Even now they started killing each other. At that time the God, the Most High relented and their penitence was accepted.

Then seventy old-men from the children of Israel claimed that they would go on the Mount of Sinai with the Prophet Moses to listen the Speech of the God Almighty. Prophet Moses brought them with Him. He instructed them to stay in the foot of Mountain and went on the Mountain Himself. The God Almighty spoke with the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) and after returning He told them. Then they said, “We wish to see the God Almighty with our eyes”.

Due to their opposing and refusal openly they were punished and the lightning fell down upon them, and they expired. After looking how big miracles and getting favors of the God Almighty the children of Israel could not leave their old bad habits. They wished to see the God Almighty with these material eyes which is impossible. So they were punished like this. 

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Revive After Death
Verse – 56 of 286, Section – 6 (Part  - 1)
Then We revived you after your extinction, that ye might give thanks.
Summa ba-‘asnaakum-mim-ba’-di mawtikum  la-‘allakum tash-kuruun.

God Almighty is reminding the children of Israel His favors one by one so that they would leave the evil doings conceiving these favors and come back on the straight path.

In this verse previous incident is being explained constantly. While a group of the children of Israel said to the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him), “We will see Allah manifestly”, the lightning seized them due to this arrogance and they all became extinct. When the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) saw them dead, He requested the God Almighty, “O my Lord! I brought these people to witness in front of the children of Israel. Now they have died. What shall I reply the nation and produce them the argument? Then Allah Almighty revived them again. 

God Almighty has done them attentive towards the fact in this verse and Commanded to Remember His favor, “Then We revived you after your extinction, that ye might give thanks”. There is only way to thank God Almighty, “Obey His orders leaving the path of infidelity and depravity.”

It appears from this incident that arrogance to the grace of God Almighty and unreasonable claim from Him is biggest sin and its punishment is very painful. Those people wished to see the God Almighty with their materialistic eyes still it was impossible for the human being till the time living in this world and they were punished on this arrogance.

So we should also admit and believe each command and order of the God Almighty and His last Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon Him) without any doubt and dispute. We should not try to grow any fault finding, criticism and argument in it without fail, because it becomes habit of the human being to find faults in each matter. The persons who become habitual of finding faults they shirk work always. They become wealthy of talking only.

BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Manna And Quails
Verse – 57 of 286, Section – 6 (Part  - 1)
And We caused the cloud to
overshadow you and sent down on
you the manna and the quails, (saying); Eat of the good things which We have provided you. They wronged Us not, but they did wrong themselves.
Wa zallalnaa ‘alaykumul-gamaama wa ‘anzalnaa ‘alay-kumul-Manna was-Salwaa. Kuluu min- tayyi-baati maa razaqnaa-kum. Wa maa zala-muunaa wa laakin- kaanuuu ‘anfusahum yazlimuun.

Manna – It was a sweet moist thing for eating which was available on searching by the children of Israel. It was a great favor of the God Almighty for their lives during wandering in the desert of Peninsula of Sinai. Different forms of Manna have been explained. Some people have told that it was like a particular kind of gum. Some others have stated it ‘Honey’. Now a day a delicious pudding named ‘Manna’ is being prepared in the Egypt. This pudding is favourite food of the Jews.

Salwaa – It is a bird like a small partridge (quail). It is found in peninsula Sinai. It does not fly on to much height and tires soon. It becomes victim easily. The sea air used to bring them flying towards the camp of the children of Israel. They used to go hunting these birds and made them their delicious food. 

As per Commentators of Religion (compliments for them) after leaving the Egypt the children of Israel used to wandering confused in the barren desert of peninsula of Sinai for forty years. Due to non availability of shade, shadow or shelter they were confused from the sunlight and requested the Prophet Moses (peace be upon Him) to seek means for saving them from this suffering (sunlight). He (peace be upon Him) prayed from the God Almighty which was approved and a cloud used to remain over their heads during the entire day to overshadow them. The God, the Most High commanded them, “and We caused the cloud to overshadow you and sent down on you the manna and the quails, (saying); Eat of the good things which We have provided you”. They were also instructed not to store these heavenly favors, take only according to the needs, however may be stored ration for two days only on Friday.

They disobeyed the order of God Almighty and began to store the food. Resultantly provision of these favors was stopped. So God Almighty reveals, “They wronged Us not, but they did wrong themselves”.

Transliteration in Roman Script & English Translation of Holy Qur’an written by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore and Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated by Muhammad Sharif)