Saturday, January 3, 2015

If they turn back to enmity then take them and kill them wherever ye find them


Lessons 539 to 550
Lesson # 539 From Holy Qur’an
Kill Them in War, Who Turned Back to Enmity
Choose No Friend from among Enemies
Forgive Them Whose Hearts Forbid Them to Make War
No Way against Them, Who Hold Aloof from You
Who Returns to Hostility, Fight against Him
Surah Nisaaa’ (Women) – Chapter – 4)
Verses –89b, 90 & 91 of 176, Section – 12/24 (Part – 5)

89b.  if they turn back (to enmity) then take them and kill them wherever ye find them, and choose no friend nor helper from among them-

90.  Except those who seek refuge with a people between whom and you there is a covenant, or (those who) come unto you because their hearts forbid them to make war on you or make war on their own folk. Had Allah Willed He would have given them power over you so that assuredly they would have fought you. So, if they hold aloof from you and wage not war against you and offer you peace, then Allah has alloweth you no way against them.

91.  Ye will find others who desire that they should have security from you, and security from their own folk. So often as they are returned to hostility they are plunged therein. If they keep not aloof from you nor offer you peace nor hold their hands, then take them and kill them wherever ye find them. And against them We have given you clear warrant.                      
89b.  Fa-‘in- tawallaw  fa-khuzuuhum  waq-tuluuhum  haysu  wajattu-muuhum  wa  laa  tatta-khizuu  minhum  waliy-yanw-wa  laa  nasiiraa.

90.  ‘Illal-laziina  yasi-luuna  ‘ilaa  qawmim-  bay-nakum  wa  bay-nahum-miisaaqun  ‘aw  jaaa-‘uukum  hasirat  suduuruhum  ‘any-yuqaa-tiluukum  ‘aw  yuqaatiluu  qaw-mahum.  Wa  law  shaaa-‘Allaahu  lasallatahum  ‘alaykum  falaqaa-taluukum.  Fa-‘ini’-taza-luukum  falam  yuqaa-tiluukum  wa  ‘al-qaw-  ‘ilay-ku-mus-salama,  famaa  ja-‘alAllaahu  lakum  ‘alay-him  sabiilaa.

91.  Sataji-duuna  ‘aakhariina  yuriiduuna  ‘any-ya’-manuukum  wa  ya’-manuu  qawmahum.  Kullamaa  rudduuu  ‘ilal-fitnati  ‘urkisuu  fiihaa.  Fa-‘illam  ya’-taziluukum  wa  yulquuu  ‘ilay-kumus-salama  wa  yakuffuuu  ‘ay-diyahum  fakhuzuuhum  waq-tuluuhum  haysu  saqif-tumuuhum.  Wa  ‘ulaaa-‘ikum  ja-‘alNaa  lakum  ‘alay-him  sultaanam-mubiinaa.                      

Lesson

Khuzuu – its origin is ‘akhaza, which is used for three purposes; to make, to choose or adopt and to hold. Base of Laa  tattakhizuu (do not choose) is also the same.

Miisaaqun – (covenant), it is from wasuuq, which means “to trust, faith and confidence”. Miisaaq is the thing, from which trust and faith is produced. It can also be aimed as mutual agreement. 

Sallata – this word is from tasliit, which means “to give control, to allow one to prevail (over or against) and to empower someone. This order is regarding those people, who were mentioned in the above lesson.

‘I’-taza-luukum -  (they hold aloof from you). It is from ‘i’-tizaal, which is again from ‘azala that means ‘to hold aloof, to remain separate, to avoid from troubling someone’. Ma’-zuul has also derived from it. 

As-salama – (peace, truce), Islam, tasliim and many other words have come out from it. It means ‘to wish safety (for self and others), to give shelter’. Here the word ‘As-salama has been used also for friendship and union besides the word peace.

saqif-tumuuhum – (you find them). The substance of this word is saqiif, which means ‘to find, to acquire’. Its aim is that whenever the war is proclaimed, then kill the enemy wherever you find him. Mind it that this order is not for the common days of peace, but only in the condition of war.

It is desired that the people who are squeezed in the infidelity, they will not become Muslims. But they will use to tempt others that they should become infidels too. However, you should say them continuously to embrace Islam and sacrifice in such a way, as you have sacrificed. If they do not believe, then you should not think for them in war, take them after overcoming and kill them. Their mixing up is useless in war because these people are your fast enemies and bad-wishers. They will not shun from wickedness, whenever they will find any chance.

In the situation of war, kill these selfish people, wherever you find them. But there are two forms for their safety:
·       They have deep association and covenant of peace with them, who have a treaty of alliance with you, because in this condition, they have entered in that covenant of peace too.

·       If they want to make a truce with you due to vexation of war, with the condition that neither they will fight with you themselves, nor they will support their nation against you.
It has been described in this verse, that if these people remain bound after the treaty of truce, give up fighting and remain in peace, then you are not permitted to narrow them. Then another group of hypocrite infidels have been discussed. These are the people, who neither want to fight against you, nor against their own nation. They make a covenant with you that they will not make a war on you. But when they observe that your enemies have been increasing, then they do not regard your articles of agreement and join your enemies. If such people come to break the covenant and begin rigidity, then you should also fight against them and destroy them, wherever you find them, because you have a perfect reason against them that they have become faithless to their covenant.  


Lesson # 540 From Holy Qur’an
Penalty of Unknowingly Murder
Intentionally Murder – Punishment of
An Awful Doom for the Killer
Wroth of God against the Murderer
It is Not for a Believer to Kill a Believer
Surah Nisaaa’ (Women) – Chapter – 4)
Verses –92 & 93 of 176, Section – 13/24 (Part – 5)

92.  It is not for a believer to kill a believer unless (it be) by mistake. And he who hath killed a believer by mistake must set free a believing slave, and pay the blood-money to the family of the slain, unless they remit it as a charity. If he (the victim) be of a people hostile unto you, and he is a believer, then (the penance is) to set free a believing slave. And if he cometh of a folk between whom and you there is a covenant, then the blood-money must be paid unto his folk and (also) a believing slave must be set free. And whoso hath not the wherewithal must fast two consecutive months; a penance from Allah. And Allah is Knower, Wise.

93.  whoso slayeth a believer intentionally his reward is Hell wherein he will abide for ever and Allah is wroth against him and He hath cursed him and prepared for him an awful doom.                   
92.  Wa  maa  kaana  li-Mu’-mi-nin  ‘any-yaqtula  Mu’-minan  ‘illaa  khata-‘aa.  Wa  man  qatala  Mu’-minan  khata-‘an  fatah-riiru  raqabatim-Mu’-minatinw-wa  di-yatum-musalla-matun  ‘ilaaa  ‘ahlihiii  ‘illaaa  ‘any-yas-saddaquu.  Fa-‘in  kaana  min- qawmin  ‘aduwwil-lakum  wa huwa  Mu’-minun-   fatah-riiru  raqaba-tim-Mu’-minah.  Wa  ‘in  kaana  min  qawmim-bayna-kum  wa  baynahum-mii-saaqun-  fa-diyatum-musalla-matun  ‘ilaaa  ‘ahlihiii  wa  tah-riiru  raqa-batim-Mu’-minah.  Famallam  yajid  fa-Siyaamu  shah-rayni  mutataa-bi-‘ayn;  tawbatam-minAllaah.  Wa  kaanAllaahu  ‘Aliiman  Hakiimaa. 

93.  Wa  many-yaqtul  Mu’-minam- muta-‘ammidan-  fa-jazaaa-‘uhuu   Jahannamu  khaalidan-  fiihaa  wa  gazibAllaahu  ‘alayhi  wa  la-‘anahuu  wa  ‘a-‘adda  lahuu  ‘azaaban  ‘aziimaa.                   
                                                             
Lesson

Tah-riiru  - (to set free), its origin is hur and plural ‘ahraar. Hur means ‘free, independent’.
Raqa-bati – (neck), here aim of this word is ‘slave’, because slave’s neck remains in his master’s hands.
Di-yatun – (blood-money), that is to say; the amount or part of wealth which is paid to the family of the slain person.
Yas-saddaquu  - (they remit, exempt), the word is from sadaqah, which means charity. Its object is that if the heirs of the killed person forgive the killer and do not get blood-money from him, then it will be charity from them.
Shah-rayni  mutataa-bi-‘ayn – (two consecutive months), it aims that no day should be left without fast within two months.
Muta-‘ammidan – (intentionally), it has been derived from the word ‘amada, which means ‘intention, attempt, willing. Qatli-‘amad means willful murder or homicide, because punishment of unknowingly murder is different from this type of killing.
Heretofore, the Muslims were instructed to fight against mischievous and treacherous hypocrites, and it is possible in the war that any Muslim is slain erroneously or unknowingly. So punishment of this type of murder was mentioned.
It was commanded, “It cannot be expected from a Muslim that he will slaughter any other Muslim intentionally. However, if it has been done so erroneously, then it should be observed:
·       Is the Muslim from one’s own nation and country?
·       Does he belong to any other such nation or country, who are not Muslims but a treaty has been agreed mutually with you?
·       Did he come from such infidel nation with whom you do not have any agreement of peace, but both are enemies of each other and fighting war?
If the slain person is from own folk, then the killer will set free a Muslim slave and pay the blood-money to the heirs of the slain. If he was from the nation, with whom you have agreement not to fight, then also you will set free any Muslim slave and pay the blood-money to his infidel heirs. If he belonged to the enemy nation, then you would have to set free a Muslim slave. In this case paying the blood-money is not necessary.
If the killer is poor, neither he has any slave or bond-woman to set free, and nor has wealth for paying blood-money, then he should fast for two consecutive months without vacant. Then his repentance will be acceptable because this is not such a crime which may be forgiven so easily. Suffer upon your own body as penance of murder and fast two consecutive months without leaving any day beside fasting, if you do not have wherewithal (blood-money) to spend. 
In the next verse, punishment for that believer has been described, who kills any other believer intentionally and voluntarily. This is the crime from which nobody can get rid of through penance. Its punishment will be given on the Doomsday. The killer will be thrown in the Fire of Hell. He will abide there forever. The Curse and wroth of Allaah Almighty is upon him. He has prepared for him an awful doom. This torment is separate from that punishment which will be suffered by him in the world i.e. taking kisaas (blood-money) from him. The command regarding retaliation (Kisaas) has passed in Surah Al-Baqarah (Chapter: The Cow). 



Lesson # 541 From Holy Qur’an
Be Careful to Discriminate in War
Say Not “You are not Believer” Who Offers Peace
Who Seeks Chance Profits of Life, Don’t Despoil Him
With God Are Plenteous Spoils
Surely God is Aware of What You Do
Surah Nisaaa’ (Women) – Chapter – 4)
Verses – 94 of 176, Section – 13/24 (Part – 5)

O ye who believe! When ye go forth (to fight) in the Way of Allah, be careful to discriminate, and say not unto one who offereth you peace: “Thou art not a believer”, seeking the chance profits of this life (so that ye may despoil him). With Allah are plenteous spoils. Even thus (as he now is) were ye before; but Allah hath since then been gracious unto you; therefore take care to discriminate. Surely Allah is Aware of what ye do.                    
Yaaa-‘ayyu-hallaziina  ‘aa-manuuu  ‘izaa  zarab-tum  fii  SabiiLillaahi  fata-bayyanuu  wa  laa  taquuluu  liman  ‘alqaaa  ‘ilay-kumus-salaama  lasta  Mu’-minaa.  Tab-taguuna  ‘arazal-hayaa-tiddunyaa  fa-‘indAllaahi  magaanimu  kasiirah.  Kazaalika  kuntum-min-  qablu  faman-nAllaahu  ‘alaykum  fata-bayyanuu.  ‘InnAllaaha  kaana  bimaa  ta’-maluuna  Khabiiraa.                       
                                                             
Lesson

Zarab-tum(you go forth), this word is from zaraba, one meaning of which is ‘to beat’, and it has also other meanings which are ‘to move, to travel’. In this verse, it aims these (second) meanings. 
‘Alqaaa – (offering), it means ‘to put an offer, to say about any matter before someone for his conciliation or making him to understand, to throw anything towards any person’.
‘Araza – (chance profits, wealth and goods), here it signifies towards common necessities of life.  
Magaanimun  - (spoils), having the mastery over the things without labour, the wealth acquired for nothing and possession of those things, which have been snatched/taken over from the enemy in war (Maali ganiimat).  
Fata-bayyanuu – (Discriminate, inquire, investigate), it has been derived from bayaan. Here it means ‘to set up a judgment after necessary investigation and understanding thoroughly.
It is commanded that ‘when you come out from your houses for fighting, then you should do nothing without attention and investigation, and whosoever discloses that he is a Muslim, you should not say him that he is not Muslim considering that he is pretending only to save his life. And you should not slay him to get his possessing. What would you do after possession of this a little wealth? Allaah Almighty will cause to give you the wealth and equipment of your enemies in huge quantity. There is no deficiency with Him. Stop your hand from the person at once, who declares with any method that he is a believer. Before Islam, you used to slay without any hesitation for getting very little things. Now you have embraced Islam. You should be careful in each matter. None should be slain from your hands in the greed of wealth. You have no right to kill that person who has disclosed himself as Muslim, blaming him that he said himself a Muslim to save his life only. Allaah Almighty knows the deeds of all of you very well and only He can decide that who is true and who is liar. Therefore, you should kill only that person, about whom you are ordered doing so. You cannot understand that whether he embraced Islam to save his life or really he is a Believer.

Lesson # 542 From Holy Qur’an
Ranks of Mujaahidiin
Degrees of Rank Who Strive
Who Sit Still are not Equal in Rank to Warriors
Mercy, Forgiveness and Ranks – Who Strive
Sedentary are Lower in Rank than Warriors
Surah Nisaaa’ (Women) – Chapter – 4)
Verses – 95 & 96 of 176, Section – 13/24 (Part – 5)

95.  Those of the believers who sit still, other than those who have a disable (hurt), are not on an equality with those who strive in the Way of Allah with their wealth and lives. Allah hath conferred on those who strive with their wealth and lives a rank above the sedentary. And unto each Allah hath promised good. And He hath bestowed on those who strive a great reward above the sedentary-

96.  Degrees of rank from Him, and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Merciful.                        
95.  Laa  yastawil-qaa-‘iduuna  minal-Mu’-miniina  gayru  ‘uliz-zarari  wal-Mujaa-hiduuna  fii  SabiiLillaahi  bi-‘amwaa-lihim  wa  ‘anfu-sihim.  Fazza-lAllaahul-Mujaa-hidiina  bi-‘amwaa-lihim  wa  ‘anfu-sihim  ‘alal-qaa-‘idiina  darajah.  Wa  kullanw-wa-‘adAllaahul-husnaa.  Wa  fazza-lAllaahul-Mujaa-hidiina  ‘alal-qaa-‘idiina  ’ajran  ‘aziimaa. 

96.  Darajaatim-minhu  wa  mag-firatanw-wa  rahmah.  Wa  kaa-nAllaahu  Gafuurar-Rahiimaa.                           
                                                             
Lesson

Gayru  ‘uliz-zarari  - (who sit still, who have no excuse), gayru means ‘except, besides,‘uliz-zarari – (those persons who are healthy and able to fight).
Allaah Almighty commands that how can those people (who shirk from strive and they are sitting at their homes to save only their own lives) be equal to those who strive with their wealth and lives. No doubt that the weak, the ill, the old, the cripple and the poor people cannot fight, but which is the apology for them who are healthy and have potentiality to strive? Those persons are thousand degrees better to them in merit, which are ready to spend their wealth and sacrifice their lives in the Way of Allaah Almighty. They have higher ranks upon them. They are entitled for special absolution and kindness.  
It is known from this verse that some such persons should be ready from the Muslims, who may save them and support the religion of Allaah Almighty. It is not obligation for all Muslims to go for fighting, if any group of such people is held. However, it is the duty of entire people to help such group in their preparation. And if such group does not exist, then entire Muslims will be sinners.


 Lesson # 543 From Holy Qur’an
Migration by the Oppressed People
The Oppressed Should Migrate to Any Peace Place 
Earth of God is Very Spacious
God will Pardon the Feeble/Unable to Migrate
Ever-Clement, Forgiving is only One (God)
Surah Nisaaa’ (Women) – Chapter – 4)
Verses – 97, 98 & 99 of 176, Section – 14/24 (Part – 5)

97.  Lo! As for those whom the angels take (in death) while they wrong themselves, (the angels) will ask: In what were ye engaged? They will say: We were oppressed in the land. (The angels) will say: Was not Allah’s earth spacious that ye could have migrated therein? As for such, their habitation will be Hell. And what an evil journey’s end.

98.  Except the feeble among men, and the women, and the children, who are unable to devise a plan and are not shown a way-

99.  As for such, it may be that Allah will pardon them. And Allah is Ever-Clement, Forgiving.                          
97.  ‘Innal-laziina  ta-waffaa-hu-mul-malaaa-‘ikatu  zaalimiii  ‘anfu-sihim  qaaluu  fiimaa  kuntum.  Qaaluu  kunnaa  mustaz-‘afiina  fil-‘arz.  Qaaluu  ‘alam  takun  ‘arzUllaahi  waasi-‘atan  fatu-haajiruu  fiihaa.  Fa-‘ulaaa-‘ika  ma’-waahum  Jahannam.  Wa  saaa-‘at  masiiraa. 

98.  ‘Illal-mustaz-‘afiina  mi-nar-rijaali  wan-nisaaa-‘i  wal-wildaani  laa  yastatii-‘uuna  hii-latanw-wa  laa  yahtaduuna  sabiilaa.

99.  Fa-‘ulaaa-‘ika  ‘asAllaahu  ‘any-ya’-fuwa  ‘anhum.  Wa  kaanAllaahu  ‘afuwwan-  Gafuuraa.                            
                                                             
Lesson

It is the abstract of above mentioned verses that after embracing Islam and believing in Holy Qur’an as a Guide, they do not have any sense of seating calmly. Those persons have been related in these verses with evil-doers, that is to say; tyrants for themselves, who keep belief in their hearts, but do not act upon the orders of Holy Qur’an fairly. They are spoiling their own. The Angels (peace be upon them) will ask from such people at the time of their death, “While truth of Holy Qur’an was manifested upon you, then why are you dying empty-handed today”? Why do you not have good deeds with you? Then their eyes will be opened. They will not be able to compose any reply. Lastly they will say, “While we were suppressed from others, then what would we had to do? We did not have power to oppose those people. We were weak, old and helpless”. Then the Angels (peace be upon them) will say, “What a strange thing? The earth created by Allaah Almighty was lying too much spacious. You would have left that land of tyrant people and migrated to any place of peace. There you could get opportunity to act upon the religious teachings without hindrance. At this stage they would be unable to reply because it was their own fault. It has been commanded here that abode of such people is Hell, which is the worst place for living. However, ill males, women and children, who neither can think about any plan, nor they know about any path and nor they are able to work, their apology can be accepted and hopefully Allaah Almighty will forgive them.  

Lesson # 544 From Holy Qur’an
Reward of God for Refugees
Migration for the Cause of Allaah
A Fugitive unto God and His Messenger
The Refugee, Whom Death Overtakes - Reward
Whoso Migrates in the Way of God
Surah Nisaaa’ (Women) – Chapter – 4)
Verses –100 of 176, Section – 14/24 (Part – 5)
  
Whoso migrateth for the Cause of Allah will find much refuge and abundance in the earth. And whoso forsaketh his home, a fugitive unto Allah and His Messenger, and death overtaketh him, his reward is then incumbent on Allah. And Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Merciful.                             
Wa  many-yuhaajir  fii  Sabii-Lillaahi  yajid  fil-‘arzi-  mu-raagaman-  kasiiranw-wasa-‘ah.  Wa  many-yakhruj  mim-  baytihii  muhaa-jiran  ‘ilAllaahi  wa  Rasuulihii  summa  yudrik-hul-  mawtu  faqad  waqa-‘a  ‘ajruhuu  ‘alAllaah.  Wa  kaanAllaahu  Gafuurar-Rahiimaa.                              
                                                             
Lesson

wasa-‘ah has been derived from sa-‘a-tan, which means accommodation, capacity. It also aims ‘wideness, prosperity, opening and hilarity’. Here it signifies towards extent of livelihood and daily food, and extension of acting upon the religion.
Yudrik – (overtake), this word is from ‘adraak, which means ‘to get, to understand, to hold’. Here it aims ‘to overtake’.  
waqa-‘a – (incumbent), to become important, to approach. It is from waquu’, which means ‘to occur’. In this verse a word ‘alaaa has come after waqa-‘a. Therefore, now its meaning will become ‘to be incumbent (on). As sometimes we say, “I have to do this work, that is to say; it is necessary and incumbent for me to do that particular work”.   
It was told in the earlier verses that the person, who has belief in his heart, it is compulsory for him to act like Muslims. This pretense “We in that case were under influence of other persons and those cruel people did not use to permit us to do good deeds” will not be heard from any healthy and able to work person. Therefore, it was commanded to them, “If you are entangled in such a country, whose people prevent you from acting upon the religion, then you should migrate from that place and live in such an independent country, where you may be free to do independently.  
It has been described in this verse, “Nobody should be afraid that if he leaves present residential place, he doesn’t know, whether he will find any place or not, whether food will be attainable or not”. It has been comforted here, “If you will migrate from such a place of suffocation, for acting upon the religion of Allaah Almighty independently, then you will find much livelihood, refuge and abundance in the earth. The person, who will leave his family, household goods and native land in accordance with the Instructions of Allaah Almighty and for His cause with true heart, Allaah Almighty will not let him to be distressed. He will never feel any deficiency in eating and drinking. Observe after working purely for Allaah Almighty. He will save you surely from the confusions. If you think, “What will happen, if I die in the way”, then have belief that your reward and good retaliation is incumbent on Allaah Almighty in such a condition”, because you have migrated from your country for His Cause. He is Ever-Forgiving sins of believers and Merciful.

Lesson # 545 From Holy Qur’an
Relaxation in Prayer During Journey
Reduction in Rak-’aat of the Prayer
An Open Enemy of You is Disbelievers
Curtailing Worship at the Time of Fear
It is No Sin to Curtail Worship during Journey
Surah Nisaaa’ (Women) – Chapter – 4)
Verses –101 of 176, Section – 15/24 (Part – 5)

And when ye go forth in the land, it is no sin for you to curtail (your) worship if ye fear that those who disbelieve may attack you. In truth the disbelievers are an open enemy to you.                              
Wa  ‘izaa  zarab-tum  fil- ‘arzi  falaysa  ‘alaykum  junaa-hun  ‘an-taq-suruu  minas-Salaa-ti  ‘in  khif-tum  ‘any-yaf-tina-kumul-laziina  kafaruu.  ‘Innal-kaafiriina  kaanuu  lakum  ‘aduw-wam-mubiinaa.                                  
                                                             
Lesson

Taq-suruu – {Curtail (your worship)}, this word is from qasar. Some other words have also come out from it like qusuur, qaasir, taq-siir. Qasar means ‘to curtail, to lessen, to reduce, to subtract and to diminish’. To curtail the worship means, “The prayer which has four rak-‘aat that will become two during journey”. 
Yaf-tina-kum  - {(they) will trouble you)}. It has been derived from fitnah, which means ‘mischief, quarrel and disturbance. Here it aims that the disbelievers will attack you.
There was description about strive and migration in the previous verses. It is clear that the journey is necessary during above both acts. Therefore form of offering prayer during journey has been illustrated in this section and permitted to curtail worship in the condition of journey. If there is a threat from the enemy, who has not embraced your religion and they remain ready every time to hurt you, they will attack in the journey, then you are allowed to curtail some prayer during journey, because the infidels are your exposed enemies.
Messenger of Allaah Almighty (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) caused to understand this matter in the manner that this concession is for all kinds of journeys, whether there is danger in it or not. The mention of fear has been stated in the verse for the purpose that when this verse was revealed, in those days the Tribe Bani Najaar asked, “What is the order for us about the prayer while we people remain frequently on journey”. Then Holy Prophet (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) told them, “Allaah Almighty has produced for you this facility with His Mercy and Kindness and permitted to curtail the Rak-‘aat of prayers in case of journey”.
Confirmation of Hanafii sect regarding the journey is that the travel should not be less than three stages (destinations, manzil). There will be no relaxation in the complete prayer for the travel less than three stages. The definition of the stage is that in which either a man or a camel travels with normal speed in a day. After that, whenever Messenger of Allaah Almighty (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) used to go on journey, then He used to offer two Rak-‘aat of the prayer instead of the prayer of four Rak-‘aat. But even then while the enemies intended to attack for getting benefit of the condition of worship by Muslims, then another method of worship was ordered, which will be discussed in the next lesson. Now it is known from these verses that the prayer is such incumbent, which can never be left without offering besides entirely helplessness. However some relaxation and reductions have been permitted.   

Lesson # 546 From Holy Qur’an
Salaatul-Khawf
Prayer of Fear
Party-wise Performing Prostrations
Safety Measures during Offering Prayers
Disbelievers Long for You to Neglect Your Arms
Surah Nisaaa’ (Women) – Chapter – 4)
Verses –102 of 176, Section – 15/24 (Part – 5)

And when thou (O Muhammad) art among them and arrangest (their) worship for them, let only a party of them stand with thee (to worship) and let them take their arms. Then when they have performed their prostrations let them fall to the rear of you and let another party come that hath not worshipped and let them worship with thee, and let them take their precaution and their arms. Those who disbelieve long for you to neglect your arms and your baggage that they may attack you one for all. It is not sin for you to lay aside your arms, if rain impedeth you or you are sick. But take your precaution. Lo! Allah has prepared for the disbelievers shameful punishment.                              
Wa  ‘izaa  kunta  fiihim  fa-‘aqmta  lahumus-Salaata  fal-taqum  taaa-‘ifatum-minhum-ma-‘aka  wal-ya’-khuzuuu  ‘asli-hatahum;  fa-‘izaa  sajaduu  fal-yakuunuu  minw-waraaa-‘ikum.  Wal-ta’-ti  taaa-‘ifatun  ‘ukh-raa  lam  yu-salluu  fal-yu-salluu  ma-‘aka  wal-ya’-khuzuu  hizra-hum  wa  ‘asli-hatahum.  Wad-dallazii-na  kafaruu  law  tag-fuluuna  ‘an  ‘asli-hatikum  wa  ‘amti-  ‘ati-kum  faya-miiluuna  ‘alaykum-  may-latanw-waahidah. Wa  laa  junaaha  ‘alaykum  ‘in-  kaana  bi-kum  ‘azam-mim-matarin  ‘aw  kuntum-marzaaa  ‘an-  taza-‘uuu  ‘asli-hatakum.  Wa  khuzuu  hiz-rakum.  ‘Innallaaha  ‘a-‘adda  lil-kaafiriina  ‘azaabam-muhiinaa.                                         
                                                             
Lesson

Taaa-‘ifatun – (a party, a group or a society), here it aims ‘a part of Army’.
Waraaa-‘i  - (rear), this word has been used for many aims as for ‘ahead, back, either front or rear’.
Wad-da – (wish, long, desire eagerly), it is from wadd, which means ‘to love, to like and to want’. The word Waduud has also come out from it.
‘Amti-  ‘ati-kum  - (Your baggage), it is plural of mataaa’, which means ‘the things of necessity, that baggage which is compulsory’.
Ya-miiluuna  - {they (may) attack (you)}, it has been derived from miil. Miilaan is also from it, which means ‘to bow aside, to incline to, to turn, to attack, to rush in, to break upon’.
Muhiinan (shameful, dishonorable, disgraceful), this word is made from ‘Ahaanat, which means ‘to abase, to insult, to disgrace or to show down’.
The situation regarding revelation of this verse is that Most Gracious Messenger of Allaah Almighty (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) moved along with Muslims for fighting in the Battle of ‘Asfaan. At the exact time of war, the time of noon prayer (Zuhr) began. He (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) offered two rak-‘aat incumbent congregational prayer with other Muslims in accordance with the instructions revealed in the previous verse. The Army of the disbelievers used to observe it in confusion. They were too much wonder-struck and senseless that they could not think about attack upon the Muslims immediately. When the Muslims had completed their worship, then Khalid Bin Waliid, till that time who had not embraced Islam and who was commander of the disbelievers’ Army, said to the personnel of his Army with great sorrow, “We have committed a very big mistake. When the Muslims were standing in a file to offer prayer, it was best chance for us to attack them coming from their rear. However, after a while they will worship again in the afternoon (‘Asr prayer), then we shall finish them”. Before starting the time of afternoon prayer (‘Asr), Allaah Almighty revealed this verse. The prayer of ‘Asr was performed according to new revelation and the planning of the disbelievers was put down as it were. It is commanded that when you are fighting with the infidels and the time of prayer begins, then the Army should be distributed in two parties. One party should stand still in front of the disbelievers and the other should stand for worship behind the first party. When this party finishes its first rak-‘at and have done with prostration, then these people should face the enemy leaving your rear and that party, which was standing before the enemy, they should perform their second rak-‘at following you. When you turn over your Salaam after completion of your prayer, then these people go back again in front of the enemy, and the party which was standing in front of the enemy, they should come back and complete their prayer (first rak-‘at of the prayer) alone. Then they should return in front of the enemy and remaining people should complete their remaining part of the prayer (first rak-‘at). In this prayer, the people are permitted to move as per requirement. Necessary Arms, Ammunition and Equipment for safety should be with everybody.   
 During war every task should be finalized carefully and intellectually. You have been given facility in the prayer during war condition. Even then, you should worship keeping in view the planning of your enemy and escaping from their attack. The enemies lie in wait for your carelessness that as soon as they find you in relaxed condition, they break upon you forthwith. Therefore, you are instructed to keep your arms and equipment decorated upon your bodies during offering prayer, so that observing your readiness, they may not find opportunity of sudden attack over you. However, if it becomes difficult to lift the weapons due to any reason and performing the prayer acts like prostration etc. become impossible, for example someone is either dead injured or it is cause of trouble to prostrate or to bow for praying duly decorated with weapon, then there is no objection in keeping the weapon separate. It will not be considered a fault to land it.
This command is for you for the purpose that there is dire need of care in war. Make up the equipment of safety to frighten the enemy. Trust in Allaah Almighty after that, be hopeful about His Dignity and believe that He has prepared shameful torment for the infidels, who have come to ruin you, considering that you were weak.


        Lesson # 547 From Holy Qur’an
‘In-nas-Salaata  kaanat  ‘alal-Mu’-miniina  kitaabam-maw-quutaa
Remembrance of God besides the Prayer 
After Performing the Act of Worship, Remember Allaah
Surely Worship at Fixed Times Has Been Enjoined on the Believers

Observe Proper Worship, When You Are in Safety
Surah Nisaaa’ (Women) – Chapter – 4)
Verses –103 of 176, Section – 15/24 (Part – 5)

When ye have performed the act of worship, remember Allah, standing, sitting and reclining. Then when ye are in safety, observe proper worship. Surely worship at fixed times hath been enjoined on the believers.                              
Fa-‘izaa  qazay-tumus-Salaata  faz-kurUllaaha  qiyaa-manw—wa  qu-‘uudanw-wa  ‘alaa  junuubikum.  Fa-‘izat-ma’-nan-tum  fa-‘aqii-mus-Salaah.  ‘In-nas-Salaata  kaanat  ‘alal-Mu’-miniina  kitaabam-maw-quutaa.                                           
                                                             
Lesson

Qazay-tum – {(ye) have performed}, this word has been derived from the word Qazaa, which means ‘to perform, to pay, to decide’. Here Qazaa has been used for performing the worship, to offer prayer. 
Junuubi – it is plural of Janab, which means ‘side, sideways, to lie down towards one side and to recline’, aim from ‘alaa  junuubikum is ‘you recline, you lie down aside’.
Maw-quutan – (at fixed times), it is from Waqt, which means ‘time’.
‘Uz-kurUllaaha (Remember Allaah), Zikr means ‘remembrance’. Wird and waziifah are hence called zikr, because doing these acts, the believer repeats the Names of Allaah (Almighty) and supplications, memorizes them again and again.  
In the previous verse it was told, “How to offer prayer while you are facing the enemies’ attack directly and during war condition”. It is evident that confusion, un-contentment and narrowness will be surely during such condition. But the prayer is to be performed as and when its time is In, in each condition (either war or peace and either sick or on journey). But since the remembrance of Allaah Almighty cannot be completed due to fear and confusion at that time, therefore it has been instructed, “Remember Allaah in the condition of standing, sitting and reclining, after performing the act of worship (prayer)”. There is no restriction of any kind for His remembrance.
The intention of the prayer is to remember Allaah Almighty, to attend only to our Creator, our Lord, our Master returning from each side. Therefore, whenever the peace time begins and the fear of fighting etc. is driven back, then perform the act of worship in such a manner that as the prayer has its right to be offered. All parts of the prayer should be performed slowly to stay regularly. Try to be in love with the remembrance of Allaah Almighty. Offer the prayer punctually in time according to complete principles, when the time of worship starts. However, any particular time is not fixed for the remembrance of Allaah Almighty. You can remember Him every time in your heart.
Several matters have been manifested from these verses, which we should keep in view in every respect. The prayer is of that kind of duty, which cannot be warded off in any form. It will be performed somehow or other, whether you are in the battlefield or it is the peace time, whether you are sick or travelling or there is any trouble. Secondly the prayer at fixed times has been enjoined on the believers. Neither it can be without time, nor can it be postponed.  

Lesson # 548 From Holy Qur’an
Relent not in Pursuit of the Hostile People
Don’t Let Your Enemies Go 
They Suffer As You Suffer but You Hope from God
You should not Loosen the Enemy
Pursuit of the Hostile People Bravely
Surah Nisaaa’ (Women) – Chapter – 4)
Verses –104 of 176, Section – 15/24 (Part – 5)

Relent not in pursuit of the hostile people. If ye are suffering, lo! They suffer even as ye suffer and ye hope from Allah that for which they cannot hope. And Allah is Ever-Knower, Wise.                               
Wa  laa  tahinuu  fib-tigaaa-‘il-qawm.  ‘In  takuunuu  ta’-la-muuna  fa-‘innahum  ya’-lamuu-na  kamaa  ta’-lamuun.  Wa  tar-juuna  minallaahi  maa  laa  yar-juun.  Wa  kaanallaahu  ‘Aliiman  Hakiimaa.                                          
                                                             
Lesson

Laa  tahinuu(Do not relent), it is from wahan, which means ‘to relent, to lose spirit or courage, to be inactive, to become loose’.
Ta’-la-muuna – (You suffer), this word is made from ‘alam, which means suffering, distress, ache. Origin of ta’-la-muuna and ya’-lamuu-na is the same. One’s tense is second person plural and the other is of third person plural.
Tar-juuna – (You hope), it has been derived from rajaaa’ which means ‘thought, hope, reliance’. Tar-juun is from the tense of second person plural, and yar-juun is third person plural.

In the beginning, the Muslims were not allowed to strive and fight. But they were ordered, “You are prevented from fighting with the Makkan people whether they tease you as much as they wish, and perform the worship and pay the poor-due”. But when tyranny of the infidels of Makkah overstepped bounds, even to this degree that the Muslims had to leave their families and homes, and they migrated to Madinah. The Messenger of Allaah Almighty (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) had also to take shelter there. Notwithstanding the people of Makkah did not leave them to molest. Then helpless Muslims were commanded to fight and strive. When the order regarding strive and fight was published once, then later on, the rules and the regulations about it were told and they were guided.

In this chapter Fighting has been mentioned with effect from very before. It has been guided in this verse, “While the quarrelsome people have already begun fighting and you have to fight, then these mischievous should be punished severely and fully, so that you may get freedom from their sedition and disturbance. It has surely been proved from their previous deeds that until they would not be punished entirely, neither they themselves would remain in peace, nor would they let to sit others comfortably. So you should fight against them with full force. No laziness and relent should be from your side. Which distress, trouble and ache you suffer due to war, they suffer also even as you suffer. Don’t care them; on the contrary, make up your minds to finish this quarrel forever.

In the distress, pain and restlessness, you and your enemy (both) are equal. Even then, there is a difference between you and them like the earth and the sky. Anyhow, you have such hopes from your Lord, which they do not have. If you won the war, you are hero, and if you are slain, then you are martyrs. In both conditions there is a strong promise of rest and comfort in the Hereafter for you, in which there is no any doubt. And remember it also that only some days’ advantages of the world are exiting them for war, which do not have any base, while you are fighting by the order of Allaah Almighty.

Lesson # 549 From Holy Qur’an
Justice without Partiality
Impartiality
Favoritism is Against the Justice
Fair Play is Impossible in Unilateralism
Taking One’s Side is Not Justice
Surah Nisaaa’ (Women) – Chapter – 4)
Verses –105 & 106 of 176, Section – 16/24 (Part – 5)

105.  Lo! We have revealed unto thee the Scripture with the Truth, that thou mayst judge between mankind by that which Allah has shown thee. And be not thou a pleader for the treacherous.

106.  And seek forgiveness of Allah. Lo! Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Merciful.                                
105.  ‘Innaaa  ‘anzalnaaa  ‘ilay-kal-Kitaaba  bil-Haqqi  litahkuma  bay-nannaasi  bimaaa  ‘araakAllaah.  Wa  laa  takul-lil-khaaa-‘iniina  khasiimaa.

106.  Wastag-firIllaah.  ‘InnAllaaha  kaana  Gafuurar-Rahiimaa.                                           
                                                             
Lesson

Tahkuma – (You may judge), it has made from hakama, which means ‘to settle, to decide, to make a judicial decision, to command about something’.  
‘Araaka – (you are caused to know or understand, you are shown), this word has been made from ‘araaa-‘ata, which has come out from rawayta. It means to observe, to see, and ‘araaa-‘ata means ‘to show and to cause to understand’. Here it has been used in these meanings.
Khasiimun – (pleader), it means ‘to plead for any person or against any person’, that is to say; ‘to try to adjudge any person criminal’.

Usually this bad habit is found in the persons, who are weak in their belief that they try to change the people’s view about that crime which they have committed personally and say that it was committed by so and so person, to save themselves from the punishment, so that they may be let off and the other may be trapped. During the reign of the Messenger of Allaah Almighty (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him), there was such a Muslim, who made hole through a wall of any person, stole a bag filled with flour and some weapons from his house and brought to own home. Accidentally the bag was torn. The flour fell in the entire way constantly. He thought, “If I will keep it in my house, I will be caught”. At night he entrusted both things with a Jew. When the light grew in the morning, the owner of flour and weapons reached his house by tracing out of the flour, which was fallen in the way. But the both things were not held in his house. He came out and observed that the line of fallen flour was going ahead. In short, he reached the house of the Jew. He arrested the Jew, when he saw his items at his home. The Jew said, “These things have been left with me by so and so person in trust. I have not stolen them”. The thief and his family told that the Jew was a thief.

When this wrangling was brought to the Messenger (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) for judgment, the patrons of the thief swore that he was not thief, but the Jew was thief. Upon their evidence the Jew stood criminal and the Messenger (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) was going to decide against the Jew, while this verse and some of next verses were revealed.

It has been commanded in the verse, “We have revealed unto you the Scripture (Holy Qur’an) with the Truth, so that you may judge correctly in Its light between the mankind by the Guidance which Allaah Almighty has shown you. Whether the quarrelsome are good or bad, whether they are believers or infidels, you should settle the true as a true and the liar as a liar, and decide with justice without favoritism. Since there was a fear of partiality, so you should seek forgiveness of Allaah Almighty, He is Ever-Forgiving, Merciful.

 Lesson # 550 From Holy Qur’an
Culprit Should Never be Patronized
No Support for the Criminal
I Seek Pardon of Allaah (‘Astag-firUllaah)
God Doesn’t Love the Treacherous and Sinful
They Seek to Hide from Men, not from God
Surah Nisaaa’ (Women) – Chapter – 4)
Verses –107 to 110 of 176, Section – 16/24 (Part – 5)

107.  And plead not on behalf of (people) who deceive themselves. Lo! Allah loveth not one who is treacherous and sinful.   

108.  They seek to hide from men and seek not to hide from Allah; and He is with them when by night they hold discourse displeasing unto Him. And Allah surroundeth what they do.

109.  Lo! Ye are they who plead for them in the life of the world. But who will plead with Allah for them on the Day of Resurrection, or who will then be their defender?

110.  And whoso doeth evil or wrongeth his own soul, then seeketh pardon of Allah, will find Allah Forgiving, Merciful.                              
107.  Wa  laa  tu-jaadil  ‘anil-laziina  yakh-taanuuna  ‘an-fusahum.  ‘InnAllaaha  laa  yuhibbu  man  kaana  khaw-waanan  ‘asii-maa.

108.  Yastakh-fuuna  minan-naasi  wa  laa  yastakh-fuuna  minAllaahi  wa  Huwa  ma-‘ahum  ‘iz  yu-bayyi-tuuna  maa  laa  yarzaa  minal-qawl.  Wa  kaanAllaahu  bimaa  ya’-maluuna  Muhii-taa.

109.  Haaa-‘antum  haaa-‘ulaaa-‘i  jaadaltum  ‘anhum  fil-hayaatid-dunyaa.  Famany-yu-jaadi-lUllaaha  ‘anhum  Yawmal-Qiyaamati  ‘ammany-yakuunu  ‘alayhim  wakiilaa.

110.  Wa  many-ya’-mal  suuu-‘an  ‘aw  yazlim  nafsahuu  summa  yastag-fiRIllaaha  yajiDIllaaha  Gafuurar-Rahiimaa.                                           
                                                             
Lesson

The reason of revelation about this verse has been mentioned in its previous verse that a Muslim had theft, whose name was Ta’mah. With whom (the Jew), he deposited the theft items, his name was Zayd. When the stealth was traced, Ta’mah tried to let the people believe that the thief was Zayd (the Jew). In the morning, the supporters of Ta’mah referred the matter to the Messenger of Allaah Almighty (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) and swore that the thief was Zayd. Ta’mah did not steal. It is being commanded in this verse, “You should not side with the dishonest and his defenders. They have been intentionally bent on treachery and a lie, supporting illicit their person, and Allaah Almighty does not like the treacherous and wicked people. They are double sinners. They try to save the thief and secondly they are accusing of theft an innocent person. They fear and feel shame from the people but do not fear and seek not to hide from Allaah Almighty. He is with them every time, when by night they hold such discourse, which displeases unto Him. They can hide from the people but how can hide from Allaah Almighty, Who has surrounded what they do?

Those people are being asked who support illicit, “If in the world you caused to succeed any person by pleading and using stratagems, and according to your opinion you arranged a record of stirring deeds to save such person, who was able to be punished severely, made harmonious other people by saying them that it was a Muslim’s matter and his honor was more precious than the opposite i.e. the Jew. If a Muslim is charged with the crime of theft, then he would not be able to show his face anywhere. Therefore, try to save him as it may be possible. It is the question of our own honor. If once respect has gone, then it cannot be gain again”. You did not think that the thief did what he did. Now you were going to commit a sin by supporting him wrongfully and trying to ensnare a person who was innocent against that person who was really guilty. No doubt you did all this in the world by deceiving and telling lies. But on the Day of Resurrection, when the matter will be produced in the Court of Allaah Almighty, then how will you support the culprits there and what will be of your cunning deeds?

You can deceive the rulers and judges of this world by providing them false evidence and lie swearing. On the Doomsday the Ruler will be Allaah (God) Almighty and He is the Knower of everybody’s heart. There you will not be able to save anyone from ignominy through your manual dexterity This advocacy and pleader-ship will not be useful on That Day. Who is such person, who will be lawyer of such people in His Court, who will fix the true as liar and the liar as true? Then it has been commanded that the sinner cannot escape from punishment of his bad deeds by the source of impostures and partiality. It is vain imagination. There is only one Way for it that he should seek pardon of Allaah Almighty and apologize for his sins duly accepted.   


Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islaah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif).

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